«Edited by Govindjee Urbana, Illinois, USA and Shyam Lal Srivastava Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India i The Cover A photograph of Krishnaji (Dada), 1980 ...»
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Allahabad and University of Allahabad “It moves. It moves not.
It is far, and it is near.
It is within all this, And It is outside of all this” (Source: Isa Upanishad) We, the editors (Govindjee and Shyam Lal Srivastava) of this book, are from Allahabad and had studied at Allahabad University. A snippet of Allahabad follows for those who are not familiar with this city and it’s University. We know that the list of “Allahabadis” given in the text that follows is incomplete. We thank Braj B. Kachru and Rajni Govindjee, two ex-alumni of Allahabad University, for reading and improving this text.
First, we refer the readers to the information that is available on
the internet. See, for example:
 http://allahabad.nic.in/entrypage.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allahabad  http://www.allduniv.ac.in/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allahabad_University A brief description of Allahabad follows.
• Allahabad, a historical city of India, is in the state of UP, Uttar Pradesh; it is situated at the Sangam (i.e., confluence; referred to as Triveni) of two rivers Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna (also called Jamuna), and the third, an invisible Saraswati (that has now dried up). Allahabad is known for culture, literature, politics, religious traditions, divinity and spirituality; it is one of the largest cities of UP, and had also been on the forefront of Science. Here, at Allahabad, Vedic culture, Buddhism, Islam, Western thoughts and Scientific Culture have come together bringing a unique brand of intellectual ethos of its own.
• Its ancient name was Prayag, and is preserved in the minds of many. In the Skand Purana, Brahma, the creator, is said to have performed Prakrista Yagna in the beginning of the creation; thus, the name Prayag (see e.g., Manu Smriti, Valmiki Ramayana). It has been the king of all pilgrimages (Teertha Raj). In Hindu mythology, it is said that a few drops of nectar (Amrita) fell on this spot while Lord Indra was carrying away the coveted Amritafilled pitcher depriving the demons of their share after recovering it as a result of churning of the ocean.
• At Allahabad, each year a month long festival, Magh Mela and every 12th year Kumbha Mela is held at Sangam where devotees, seers, sages and scholars from distant parts of the country and beyond, gather.
• A great Hindu philosopher and sage Bharadwaj lived in Prayag ~ 5000 BCE; it is said that he had ~ 10,000 disciples. Bharadwaj Ashram at Allahabad is a relic of the past; it is said that here Bharadwaj welcomed Lord Rama when he was going South on his 14 year exile after relinquishing the throne of Ayodhya.
(According to legends, it is here that Rishi Yagyavalkya had narrated the story of Ramayana to Bharadwaj.)
• In 1575, Moghul emperor Akbar laid the foundation of a new district Subah-é-Illahabas; the city of Illahabas later became known as Allahabad. Akbar built the Fort (Kila) of Allahabad near the Sangam which took more than 45 years to complete.
Inside this fort, opposite to the main entrance is the Ashoka pillar;
this pillar was installed long ago in the 3rd century BCE; it bears certain edicts of Ashoka besides a Persian inscription that was added later by Jehangir to commemorate his accession to the throne. (The other attractions within the fort are the Patalpuri temple and the Akshayavata, the undying banyan tree.)
• In 1801, Allahabad was taken over by the British; it was made an important military base. In 1858, it was called Allahabad by the British; in 1868, it became the seat of Justice when the High Court was built; in 1871, the British architect Sir William Emerson erected the majestic All Saints Cathedral in Allahabad.
• In 1872, (Sir William) Muir Central College was established as an affiliate of Calcutta University. Its foundation stone was laid by Lord North Brooke on December 9, 1873. It took 12 years to complete it and was designed by William Emerson. In 1887, the 4th oldest University was built here, the University of Allahabad that has produced some of the best statesmen, scholars, poets, and scientists in the past. A photograph of the beautiful Vijaynagaram Hall and its tower is shown as the frontpiece of Part A of this book.
• Allahabad is famous for our War of independence from the British, starting already with the 1857 freedom movement. Anand Bhawan, the home of the famous Nehrus, was later to be the center of the freedom movement. It was in Allahabad that Mahatma Gandhi proposed his non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) against the British. Allahabad was also the home of: Chandrasekhar Azad, a revolutionary and a mentor of Bhagat Singh, Pundit Motilal Nehru, the famous lawyer; and Purushottam Das Tandon, another freedom fighter.
• Allahabad boasts of having been associated with a large number of former Prime Ministers of India: Jawahar Lal Nehru; Lal Bahadur Shastri; Indira Gandhi; Rajiv Gandhi; Vishwanath Pratap Singh; Gulzarilal Nanda; and Chandra Shekhar (Singh).
• Allahabad had the fortune of being visited by the most influential figures in the country. It included Mahatma Gandhi (Father of the Nation); Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (Philosopher and Former President of India); Madan Mohan Malviya (Founder of Banaras Hindu University); Sarojini Naidu (Poet, and a former Governor of West Bengal); Sir C. V. Raman (Nobel-laureate in Physics);
Rajendra Prasad (Former President of India); Lala Lajpat Rai (The so-called Lion of India); Acharya Kriplani (Freedom Fighter); and Vallabh Bhai Patel (The first Home Minister of India).
• Allahabad has been a seat of learning, wisdom, literature and poets; it was the home of Akbar Allahabadi; Harivansh Rai “Bachchan” (Srivastava); Amitabh Bachchan (the movie idol of India); Raghupati Sahai Firaq (Gorakhpuri); Mahadevi Verma;
Sumitranandan Pant; Maithali Sharan Gupta; and Suryakant Tripathi Nirala; Rahul Sanskrityayan; Hriday Nath Kunjru (Founder of Servants of India Society); and Prabhudutta Brahmachari. [Both Bachchan ji and Firaq Sahib lived very close to the house where Krishnaji lived.]
• Among other stalwarts who taught at Allahabad University were:
Meghnad Saha (Physics); K.S. Krishnan (Physics); Neel Ratan Dhar (Chemistry); Shri Ranjan (Botany); Birbal Sahni (Paleobotany); Panchanan Maheshwari (Botany); Ishwari Prasad (History); S.C. Deb (English); Phiroz E. Dustoor (English);
Prakash Chandra Gupta (English); Ram Kumar Verma (Hindi Critic); Dhirendra Verma (Linguist), Baburam Saksena (Linguistics); Udai Narain Tewari (Linguistics); and Arvind Krishna Mehrotra (Author of “Last Bungalow”). Two Vice Chancellors of Allahabad University that Govindjee remembers well were Amarnath Jha and A.C. Banerji.
• Among the ex-alumni of Allahabad University (not listed above) are: Govind Ballabh Pant (Chief Minister of UP); Acharya Narendra Deb (Freedom fighter); Shankar Dayal Sharma (Former President of India); Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (A great spiritual leader); Ranganath Mishra (Former Chief Justice of India); K.N.
Singh (Former Chief Justice of India); Gopal Swarup Pathak (Former Vice President of India); Raghunandan Swarup Pathak (Chief Justice, Himachal Pradesh); Daulat Singh Kothari (Physicist); Kundan Singh Singwi (Physicist); Harish Chandra (Mathematician); Govind Swarup (Physicist); Krishnaji (Physicist— to whom this book is dedicated); H.N. Bahuguna (Former Deputy Prime Minister of India); Murali Manohar Joshi (Former Union Minister, Human Resource & Development);
Kamleshwar (Journalist, Literary and Television figure); Makhan Lal Fotedar (Former Home Minister of India); Vidya Niwas Mishra (Late Vice Chancellor of Sanskrit University, Varansi and a Hindi writer); and Nandkishore Gupta Devraj (Hindi writer and critic). Among many others, we mention: Braj B. Kachru (Linguist); Suresh Chandra (Physicist – Solid State Ionics);
Rameshwar Bhargava (Nanotechnologist); Govindjee (Plant Biologist - Photosynthesis); Rajni Govindjee (Biologist), and many others who have written tributes to Krishnaji in this book, including Krishnaji’s brother Gopalji (Business Executive), his sister Malati Sahay (Hindi Educator), his brother-in-law Radha Krishna Sahay (Hindi writer and critic), and his student Shyam Lal Srivastava (Physicist).
• We are proud to mention that Allahabad was the home of the most famous flutist of India, Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia.
• When the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of the National Academy of Sciences at Allahabad was celebrated, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the then President of India, was the Chief guest to whom “Science is a passion, a never ending voyage into promises and possibilities”, a view which recalled Albert Einstein’s words portraying himself “I have no special talents, I am only passionately curious”.
• Amaresh Misra has written about “The Town India Forgot” (Source: http://outlookindia.com/diary.asp?listsubsec=q &fodname=19980629) “Allahabad today is a stagnating city which refuses to decay.
The whitewash on the Romanesque arches and Greek columns of the bungalows is wearing off. The famed broad roads, structured on a grid-like pattern even in the old city area (once the envy of North India), stretch like abandoned dance floors of the great hotels of yore—still grand but less proud, jaded but not faded. This was a city with an ice-cream parlour, the Guzders, before which Bombay joints looked like stalls at a village fair. [Govindjee remembers the Guzders where he would go for ice cream on special occasions.] Snobbery came natural to aficionados of El Chico’s movie-like restaurant decor.
There was a class cabaret, the Gaylords, in the civil lines in the 60s when Delhi hid its nightlife behind sleazy doors. Delhi was Punjabi, crude and downtown. Allahabad was intellectual, upmarket and aristocratic; the girls were stoic, alluring, upper class and exclusive— a living amalgam of Brahmavarta elitism, modernity and westernism.
During the day black coats of High Court barons flashed with condescending aura in the pillared halls of their great Georgian villa.
In the evening, the men in black quoted Shakespeare and Voltaire while smoking foreign cigars. They had a way of drinking beer and a way of watching the mujra at exclusive haunts near the Ganga. Both the cabaret and the mujra, the west and the east, rubbed shoulders as non-colonial cousins. Old timers still remember Janki Bai ‘chhappan chhuri’ (she had 56 knife wounds on her body, courtesy of a sour lover) singing, full blast on a public crossing, about the jalwa (honour and sheen) of the beauty walking with ‘das gunda aage’ and ‘das gunda peeche’!” On the Perceptions of the Divine Govindjee is thankful to the following friends for their generous and highly valuable participation in his quest to collate texts on the Perceptions of the Divine in various faiths: Narendra Ahuja, Dilip Chhajed, Pradeep Dhillon, Stephen Downie, Hans Hock, Zarina Hock, Jain Swarup Jain, Braj Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, Rajeshwari Pandharipande, and Rizwan Uddin. Our quest is rather incomplete not only because we were unable to find views of several faiths, but it is the nature of the quest itself. Further, no attempt was made to have uniformity in presentation. The participants in this current quest are quoted, but they are not responsible for any errors made here.
A. Views of Hinduism on the ‘Perceptions of the Divine’, as presented by Rajeshwari Pandharipande follows.
1. The Divine is indestructible ‘Weapons do not cut it; fire does not burn it. Neither does water wet it; the wind cannot dry it.’ —The Bhagawadgita, 2: 23.
2. The Divine is the energy in the universe ‘The luminous energy of the sun illuminating the world, the same that is in the moon and fire, know that radiance to be mine.’— Bhagawadgita, 15: 12.
3. The form and the formless are one and the same Divine ‘He who is formless is also endowed with form. To His Bhaktas [disciples] he reveals Himself as having a form. It is like a great ocean, an infinite expanse of water, without any trace of shore. Here and there some of the water has been frozen. Intense cold has turned it into ice. Just so, under the cooling influence, so to speak of the Bhakta’s love, the infinite appears to take form. Again, the ice melts when the sun rises; it becomes water as before. Just so, one who follows the path of knowledge, the path of discrimination, does not see the form of God any more, to him everything is formless. The ice melts into formless with the rise of the sun of knowledge. But mark this: form and formlessness belong to one and the same reality’.— The Gospel of Shri Ramakrishna, p 370.
4. The relationship between Maya, the transient world, and Brahman, the eternal Divine ‘Maya and Brahman are one like the person and his shadow.’ — Tukaramanchi Gatha, Abhanga, 65:1.
5. The beauty of the loving form of the Divine: Vitthal ‘That beautiful one is standing on the brick. Let my inclination always be to be with Him. He has the Tulsi-garland around His neck and He wears the beautiful pitambara. I am fond of this exquisite beauty of His. Tukaram says, this is indeed my utmost joy to see this auspicious face of Shri Vitthal!’—Tukaramanchi Abhanga, 2:1.3.
[Notes: Tulsi (Holy Basil)—Ocimum tenuifloru (or sanctum);
garland is made of the dried stems of the plant; Pitambara—means ‘yellow garments’, derived from Sanskrit (pita) ‘yellow’and (ambara) ‘garment’; Vitthal—refers to Vishnu.]
6. God is one, called by many names ‘The One being the sages call by many names as they speak of Indra, Yama, Matarishwan. The wise poets with their words shape the One being in many ways.’—Rigveda, 10:114:5.
B. Hans Hock provided the following passage from the Rigveda (10.1.129.7).
FÙeb efJeme=ef„Ùe&le DeeyeYetJe Ùeefo Jee oOes Ùeefo Jee ve ~ Ùees DemÙeeOÙe#e: hejces JÙeescevlmees Debie Jeso Ùeefo Jee ve Jeso ~~ In English ‘This creation, whence it came about, whether it was created, or not, Who is the overseer of this (world) in highest heaven, he indeed knows, unless he does not know’.
C. Rizwan Uddin presented the following passages from the Upanishads.
—‘Invisible, intangible, having neither family nor caste, devoid of eye and ear, devoid of hands and feet, eternal, [all]-pervading, penetrating everywhere, most subtle, changeless,—so do the wise discern It, —Womb [and origin] of [all] that comes to be.’—Mandukya Upanishad, 1.i.6 —‘Eye cannot see Him, nor words reveal him; by the sense, austerity, or words, He is not known. When the mind is cleansed by the grace of wisdom, He is seen by contemplation—the One without parts.’ —Mandukya Upanishad, 3.1.8.
—‘He is the One God, hidden in all beings, all-pervading, the Self within all beings, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the perceiver, the Only One, free from qualities.’— Svetasvatara Upanishad, 6.11.
[For further contribution by Rizwan Uddin, see section G.] D. Perceptions from the Jain faith were provided by Jain Swarup Jain and Dilip Chhajed.
—‘Every living being has a soul; every soul is potentially divine with innate, though typically unrealized, infinite knowledge.’ —‘Jainism prescribes a path of non-violence for all forms of living beings in this world. Its philosophy and practice relies mainly on self-effort in having the soul progress on the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul which has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of Supreme Being is called Jina (Conqueror or Victor). Jainism is the path to achieve this state.’ —‘Jains do not believe that the universe was created by God or by any other creative spirit. Jain writings question the very idea of God, although they do believe in the ‘Divine’ [as noted above]: If God created the world, where was He before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is He now? No single being had the skill to make this world—For how can an immaterial God create that which is material? If God is ever perfect and complete, how could the will to create have arisen in him? If, on the other hand, He is not perfect, He could no more create the universe than a potter could.’ E. Text from Deuteronomy, from the Jewish faith, on the perception that ‘God is one’ was provided by Stephen Downie.
—‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one’— Deuteronomy, Chapter 6: article 4.
—‘That you will know that God is the Supreme Being and there is none besides Him’— Deuteronomy 4:35.
— God your Lord is the God of gods and the Master of master— Deuteronomy, 10:17.
—But now see – it is I! I am the only One! There are no (other) gods with me! —Deuteronomy 32:39.
F. Passages from the Christian faith were provided by Zarina Hock.
—‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God.
All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.’ —Gospel of John, chapter 1, verses 1-5.
—[Jesus’ words as recorded] ‘You shall love the Lord, your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.
This is the great and foremost commandment. And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.’ —Gospel of Matthew, chapter 22, verses 37-40.
—[Jesus’ words as recorded] ‘Give to everyone who asks of you, and from the one who takes what is yours do not demand it back. Do to others as you would have them do to you’. —Gospel of Luke, chapter 6, verses 30-32.
—[Jesus’ words as recorded] ‘You have heard that it was said, “You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.” But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.’ —Gospel of Matthew, chapter 5, verses 43-48.
— ‘God is love’—First epistle of John, chapter 4, verse 8 G. Text from the Muslim faith was provided by Rizwan Uddin.
—‘This is the God, other than which there is no deity: the Sovereign, the Holy, Peace, the Giver of Safety, the Protector, the Almighty, the Omnipotent, the Overwhelming; glory to God, beyond any association they attribute. This is God, the Originator, the Creator,
the Shaper, to whom refer the most beautiful names,’ –Quran, 59:
—‘The Almighty is known by His many names or attributes.
Some of them are: The Compassionate; The Holy; The Source of Peace ; The Creator; The Great Forgiver; The Sustainer, The Provider; The All-knowing ; The Just; The Subtle One, The Generous One, The Gracious; The Wise ; The Truth ; The Restorer, The Giver of Life ; The Creator of Death; The Eternal, The Independent ; The First ; The Last; The Manifest ; The Hidden ; The Lord of Majesty, Bounty.’ –See 99 Names of Allah (God).
—‘Fatihah’ : what some call the Quranic equivalent of the Lord’s Prayer. Here it is: ‘(1) In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful; (2) Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the world; (3) Most Gracious, Most Merciful; (4) Master of the Day of Judgment; (5) Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek; (6) Show us the straight way; (7) The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
H. A passage from Guru Nanak (1544-1603) was provided by Pradeep Dhillon.
‘Wonder inspiring are the books of revelation!
Wonder inspiring the forms!
Wonder inspiring the colors!
Wonder inspiring, the air!
Wonder inspiring, the water!
Wonder inspiring the play of fire!
I have been struck with wonder to see the wondrous play;
Nanak only the blessed ones understand.’ I. The Nature of Divine, from two couplets of Kabir Das (15th century) was provided by Yamuna Kachru.
pewmes efleue ceW lesue nw pÙeeW Ûekeâcekeâ ceW Deeie, lesje meeF&b legPe ceW nw peeie mekesâ lees peeie~ In English Just as the oil is inside the sesame seed, just as the fire is inside the flint stone Your God is inside you, wake up if you can.
Just like the pupil in the eyes, your God lives inside you.
The ignorant don’t know this; they go and search Him outside.
J. A visionary message about the Divine from a Kashmiri poet (the late Zinda Kaul ‘Masterji’)* was presented by Braj B.
On Masterji’s 66th birthday, the 24th of July 1949, his admirers – and there were plenty of them—insisted that he write a message for them. And here is one written by Masterji, as he says,” with much hesitation.” ‘If I had another life to live as a human being, I would have firm faith in God as the highest ideal of “Truth, Goodness and Beauty.” I would make my religion what is common to all religions, namely – Belief in the highest ideal and worship of the highest by unselfish service rendered to all living beings; health of body, mind and heart;
and purity of mind and speech. I would hate no man, but would fight to the last against all menace of injustice and evils wrought by misguided man. I would look upon woman as an incarnation on earth of the world mother, would love children as heirs to the Kingdom of Heaven, and respect the meanest toiler as a pillar and prop of society.’ *Who was Masterji? Pandit Zinda Kaul (1884-1965), affectionately called ‘Masterji’ (respected teacher) by his friends, was a saintly Kashmiri poet born in Srinagar, Kashmir. He was the first Kashmiri poet to be honored with a Sahitya Academi Award in 1956 on his collection of Kashmiri poems entitled Samaran. India’s most distinguished linguist Suniti Kumar Chatterji said that in conferring the award on Masterji, Sahitya Academi had honoured itself. Masterji wrote poetry in Urdu, Persian, Hindi and Kashmiri.
A detailed discussion on Zinda Kaul Masterji’s life and literary contribution is published in Kashmiri Literature (1981) by Braj B.
Kachru. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 49-55.
K. Narendra Ahuja has provided the following thoughts on the place God occupies in Vedanta.
The experiences and visions of numerous Vedic sages about the nature of existence, arrived at after observation, analysis, experimentation and introspection over thousands of years, are distilled into the philosophy of Vedanta—the extract of the Vedas. It pervades Indian thought. The Advaita—non-dual—expression of the Vedanta vision says that that there is nothing but Brahman. Everything is but a manifestation of the Brahman. All worldly parameters and their perceptions, even if unfathomably complex, are but projections of that infinite reality. Like clay in different pots, and like cotton in different garments, Brahman is the defining unity under the perceived diversity of the world. Like the dream world, rich and real as it looks, is made of one stuff, the dreamer’s mind, so is the diversity of the world, although perceived as real by one lost in it, a manifestation of Brahman. Like the deer sees the mirage, in place of the desert whose appearance it is, so one sees the world, and not its unifying realty of Brahman. The aim of Vedanta is to shake people out of this illusion, so that what is termed as perception of God instead becomes identification with Him.
This defining theme runs through all four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Atharva and Sama), and is captured in the following celebrated Shloka (in Sanskrit) from Isha Upanishad in Yajur Veda:
TB hetCe&ceo: hetCe&efceob hetCee&lhetCe&cegoÛÙeles~ hetCe&mÙe hetCe&ceeoeÙe hetCe&cesJeeJeefMeÙeles~~
That is :
That (Brahman) is infinite. This (universe) is infinite. Only from infinite has come infinite. Take away infinite from infinite and what is left is infinite.
The four Mahavakyas (great sentences) from the four Vedas traverse the fundamental relationship between the world and the
Brahman slightly differently:
1. Pragnanam Brahma: Consciousness is Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad, in Rig Veda).
2. Tat twam asi: That Thou are (Chandogya Upanishad, in Sama Veda).
3. Ayam Atma Brahma: This Self is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad in Atharva Veda).
4. Aham Brahma asmi: I am Brahman (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in Yajur Veda).
Throughout the ages, the sages have declared from personal experience that the realization of the above otherwise abstract relationship, as opposed to its logical analysis and acceptance, is within the reach of every human being. They have developed ways for doing this, to suit every shade of human psyche. These recipes for living exhibit a mind-numbing level of precision in the understanding of the human nature, with all its common strengths and frailties. These ways have percolated into everyday stories that most Indians grow up hearing. Not only they have been popular themes of poetry in all languages across India, e.g., in Kabir (Section I, Yamuna Kachru) and Nanak’s (Section H, Pradeep Dhillon) writings cited above, but they have found expression even in the relatively young language Urdu and its powerful poetry. For example, Azad Ansari (1871-1942) has beautifully stated how the sages have claimed an ordinary person could develop clarity of vision about everything,
namely by dissolving ego, or separate identity:
yes]Keyej, keâj-S-]Keyej cegefMkeâue veneR, yes]Keyej nes pee, ]Keyej nes peeÙesieer~
That is :
Oh you lost one (in the illusory world), it is not difficult to find way (see reality). Lose yourself (your ego), and you will come to know (Brahman).
Another noted Urdu poet, Mohammad Iqbal (1877—1938), explains the major role Vedanta advocates for mind and reason, as a tool for searching and recognizing the path to self-realization, lest one gets lost in mind’s own playful attractions, and forgets the
ieg]pej pee Dekeäue mes Deeies, efkeâ Ùes vetj, efÛejeie-S-jen nw, ceefv]peue veneR nw Ùes~
Aim beyond the reaches of the mind, because this light is only a lamp to show the way (a tool to discriminate right from wrong), it (a manifestation) is not the destination (Brahman).
And finally, in the following Urdu couplet, Azad Ansari captures the foundational equation of Vedanta, about the identity between the human and Brahman, which is obscured from the view of an ordinary
person by the illusion that is the world:
Fvmeeve keâer yeoyeKleer Devoe]pe mes yeenj nw, keâceyeKle Kegoe neskeâj, yevoe ve]pej Deelee nw~
The misfortune of human being (manifestation of Brahman) is beyond description. Poor fellow, despite being Brahman, comes across as being an ordinary, weak human.