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«Edited by Govindjee Urbana, Illinois, USA and Shyam Lal Srivastava Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India i The Cover A photograph of Krishnaji (Dada), 1980 ...»

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With Suresh Chandra (Agarwal) (1968) Bond properties of molecules. J. Sc. Industr. Research (India) 27, 135.

(1970) Microwave spectrum of chlorotrifluoroethylene. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 8, 634.

With Dina Nath (1970) Dielectric relaxation studies in liquids at microwave frequencies and viscoelastic relaxation behavior of the solvents. J.

Chem. Phys. 52, 940 (also under Shyam Lal Srivastava).

With Vinod Kumar Agarwal (1971a) Dielectric relaxation behaviour in liquid alkanethiols.

Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (also under Pradip Kumar).

(1971b) Dielectric relaxation behaviour of alkanethiols in benzene solution. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 9, 176 (also under Pradip Kumar).

(1971c) Dielectric relaxation mechanism in some alkanethiols.

I. J. Chem. Phys. 54, 4132 (also under Pradip Kumar).

(1972) Dielectric relaxation mechanism in some alkanethiols.

II. J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5034 (also under Pradip Kumar).

With Pradip Kumar (1971a) Dielectric relaxation behaviour in liquid alkanethiols.

Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (also under Vinod Kumar Agarwal).

(1971b) Dielectric relaxation behaviour of alkanethiols in benzene solution. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 9, 176 (also under Vinod Kumar Agarwal).

(1971c) Dielectric relaxation mechanism in some alkanethiols.

I. J. Chem. Phys. 54, 4132 (also under Vinod Kumar Agarwal).

(1972) Dielectric relaxation mechanism in some alkanethiols.

II. J. Chem. Phys. 56, 5034 (also under Vinod Kumar Agarwal).

With Ramji Srivastava (1975a) Dielectric permittivity and breakdown strength of molybdenum trioxide films. Jour. Phys. Soc. Japan 39, 1316 (also under Parmendu Kant).

(1975b) Electrical properties of vacuum depositd films of tungsten trioxide. thin solid films. 26, L13 (also under Parmendu Kant).

(1975c) Dielectric properties of vacuum evapoprated films of tungsten trioxide. thin solid films. 30, 319 (also under Parmendu Kant).

With Prem Chand Pandey (1972) Study of molecular collisions by microwave spectral linewidths. Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 372 (also under Shyam Lal Srivastava).

With Rajendra Kumar Laloraya (1973) Laser excited Raman spectrum of 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 11, 74.

(1974a) Laser-excited Raman spectrum of 1,1,2-triflnoro 1,2,2trichloroethane. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 12, 585.

(1974b) Laser excited Raman spectrum of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2,2trichloroethane. J. Chem. Phys. 61, 1918.

With Parmendu Kant (1975a) Dielectric permittivity and breakdown strength of molybdenum trioxide films. Jour. Phys. Soc. Japan 39, 1316 (also under Ramji Srivastava).

(1975b) Electrical properties of vacuum depositd films of tungsten trioxide, thin solid films. 26, L13 (also under Ramji Srivastava).

(1975c) Dielectric properties of vacuum evapoprated films of tungsten trioxide. thin solid films. 30, 319 (also under Ramji Srivastava).

With Gajendra Kumar Johri (1979) Barrier to internal rotation from the microwave spectrum – a review. J. Sc. Industr. Res (India), 38, 112 (also under Shyam Lal Srivastava and N.K. Narain).

With Nabin Kumar Narain (1977) Barrier to internal rotation in N-methyl pyrazole from microwave spectrum. Indian. J. Phys. 51B, 8 (also under Shyam Lal Srivastava).

(1979) Barrier to internal rotation from the microwave spectrum – a review. J. Sc. Industr. Res (India), 38, 112 (also under Shyam Lal Srivastava and G.K. Johri).

Reprinted from Science and Culture, Vol. 27, pp. 128-134, March, 1961.

Development of Scientific Research in India-A Casualty Krishnaji Allahabad University, Allahabad [In keeping with our policy to allow publication of different view points on educational policy and scientific progress in our country this article has been printed. The views expressed in it do not necessarily coincide with those of the Board, of Editors - Ed. SCI. & CULT.] O ne cannot begin writing about scientific development in India without paying the highest tribute to the unique and imaginative personality of our popular Prime Minister Shri Jawaharlal Nehru.

His enthusiasm for and his encouragement to scientific research in this country have been, if I may say so, many times more than that of the scientists themselves. It is not difficult to imagine how different the state of affairs would have been if the scientists or planners of scientific research in India had shown greater imagination and made better use of the encouragement given by the authorities who have been anxious to do their best.

Unhappy state of affairs In the face of an apparently overwhelming evidence in the shape of a large number of National Laboratories, research institutes, new universities, Vigyan Mandirs and a number of development councils and committees, it is difficult to convince anybody in India that we have not progressed much in the field of scientific research. On the other hand, it is equally difficult to convince anybody outside India as well as a large number of young scientists in India that we have made any worth while progress in this sphere. It can be said that one must ‘learn to walk before running’ and, this takes time and therefore one should not mind the effort and time if one is learning to walk properly. Unfortunately, however, many are doubtful even about the soundness of the principles on which our planning is based. One must discriminate clearly between the technological developments made possible through loans and aids (technical and financial) from other countries, and the development of scientific research which will lay the foundations of future industrial, technological and scientific developments made and sustained by our own people without external help. A practical measure of the success of planning in this direction, to my mind, should be the ratio of the volume of research and trained research personnel produced to the amount of money spent on it. It appears, however, that this ratio for India, at present, will be found among the lowest in the world. It is unfortunate that scientists as well give a false picture of the state of development and thus make people complacent and proud of something which does not exist. The institution of Indian Science Congress, as it is run at present, leaves much to be desired. It is growing up as a scientific counterpart of the annual gathering of social and political organizations.

Some of the paradoxes It is not uncommon to find directors of laboratories or ViceChancellors of universities complaining that they are not finding suitably qualified scientists to fill up a number of vacancies (specially in physics and engineering) in their organization and at the same time one often comes across highly qualified young scientists not getting suitable jobs where they can do some useful work. We are told that India is a poor country and can not afford to spend sufficient money on research and yet it is not rare to find specialized laboratories for almost identical subjects being started by different departments of the Government. At times, two different sections of the same laboratory may be seen handling similar projects and even two officers of the same section handling similar projects separately. Big laboratories may be found stuffed with costly equipment purchased from abroad but with practically nobody to use them and at the same time competent and qualified men sitting in rooms with inadequate equipment to do some useful work. Younger scientists are told that they should not go abroad and stay in foreign countries for learning research because there are enough facilities available in India and the motherland needs their services badly. When these young men, however, are interviewed for employment, they are invariably askedHave you worked in a foreign country?’ or ‘How long have you been in the States?’ The young men to their surprise find that their services are really not needed unless they can overawe the experts by the foreign acquired mannerism and confuse them with names of powerful tools of experimental and theoretical research. Such is the paradox in which we find ourselves to day.

Heavy work for the top scientists The number of top ranking scientists, in the country, are few but the number of assignments needing their services as experts are far too many with the result that one man has to attend to far too many appointments and responsibilities. The selected few, who proudly possess science in India, are required to attend all sorts of conferences in other countries and may be in connexion with subjects they may not be interested in. The load of work goes on increasing since they cannot (or do not want to) find their understudies to relieve them partly of their responsibilities. They probably derive moral support from the fact that even Nehru has not been able to find his substitute.

It appears that some of them may not like to help create their successors. The administrative responsibilities at times make their professional work as of secondary importance. It is not understood why they do not realize that when we neglect our profession we also become unfit as competent technical advisers.

Universities: best place for research Everybody will agree that universities are the best place for research activities. The climate of research and original thinking can never develop in a Government establishment whether it is under SRCA Ministry, Defence Ministry, Communication Ministry or Home Ministry. The reasons are very obvious and simple. The future of the worker in a Government laboratory depends upon the progress report and the confidential report submitted by his officer and this fear is enough to kill initiative and independent thinking. This may not be true in all cases, but I do feel that this is the case with the majority of workers in the Government establishments. Very senior officers like Assistant Directors or Principal Scientific Officers have been heard to say that if a particular idea is not liked by the chief it should not be discussed. The creative research cannot develop except in a free and unfettered atmosphere; freedom and criticism both are shy of ‘officers’ and the Government organizations can not work without officers.

Apart from the greater degree of independence of thought, action, and expression in the universities, one is likely to get a team of enthusiastic and willing workers more easily there than in Government establishments. The possibility of getting a research degree, of publishing the results quickly in a research journal and thus getting due credit for the work done, and the possibility of commanding spontaneous respect and reputation among a large number of students are some of the very powerful incentives for research in the universities. These factors are lacking in Government organizations.

Instances are not infrequent of individuals who produced very good work when they were in the universities but almost stopped producing any work even in a decade or so after joining a Government establishment. Some of the research workers in Government organizations seem to translate the ‘Parkinson’s law or the pursuit of progress’ in practice. People sometimes begin to doubt whether it is really true that universities are the best places for research activities in India because they argue that in such a case people like Bhaba, Krishnan and Mahalanobis etc. should have been in the universities.

It is, really, the biggest misfortune of this country that our top scientists are heading Government establishments and not university research centres. A situation, in which scientists prefer to remain directors instead of professors, has to be taken note of, rather, seriously. If this is the result of our planning, I must confess we have planned not for progress but for neglect of the progress of scientific research in our country. It will be difficult to find a parallel in any of the advanced democratic countries in the world.

Unfair treatment to universities One may be pardoned if he is inclined to believe that the absence (total or partial) of the few topmost scientists from the universities is responsible for the step-motherly treatment given to them as compared to CSIR laboratories, Defence Science Units and Indian Institutes of Technology. A senior scientific officer Grade I in anyone of the Government establishments and an Assistant Professor in any Indian Institute of Technology enjoys almost the same emoluments as that of a University Professor. An assistant director of CSIR laboratory, a principal scientific officer in Defence Science Service or a professor of Indian Institute of Technology draws a higher salary than that of a University Professor. I do not know how the top scientists, particularly those who have something to do with universities as well, tolerate or acquiesce in such a state of affairs. It is a fact that except for the universities of Delhi and Calcutta, other universities have only one professor in each department, whereas National Physical Laboratory alone has about eight Assistant Directors and twelve Senior Scientific Officers of Grade 1. Does it mean that the controllers of scientific research in India do not want research to be done in the universities or do they think that a research worker in the universities has any less material need than in a Government research laboratory? It is true that a number of university teachers remain content with lower salaries because they realize that freedom of thought and action involve sacrifice. Even they get disgusted when they find that politicians in power and officials even, indulge in unfair criticisms when they have produced more research for the money spent on them and have in addition trained research personnel for the country. A university man feels discouraged to find that his counterpart is looked after in a better way for poorer performance. The result of this apathy towards university research worker is that competent and qualified young men, who can not stand these disabilities, are leaving the universities for better jobs elsewhere, and are normally lost in the field of administration.

University authorities may not often encourage research All is not well in the universities also. The torch bearers of academic standards themselves do many things which discourage research. Original thinking and translating it into action requires a certain amount of time in which one should not be hustled or disturbed.

The age old syllabus and its teaching by the age old methods takes enormous amount of one’s time without making the student any wiser.

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