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«By James R. Keron Graduate Program in Anthropology Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Faculty of ...»

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Appendix A: Site Inventory

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Comments Problematic Representativeness - This is applied where ever the sample was obtained by only partial excavation of the site since the entire site must be covered to ensure that the sample is representative.

Published KP% Only The collection was not analyzed as part of this study. The only fact taken from the report was the % of Kettle Point chert in the debitage. This percent was then adjusted so that unidentified chert did not count towards the total percentage.

Surface Collection or CSP The sample is a complete collection of the surface of the site and so representative. However, some samples are small and this is noted.

Note 1: While the sample from Skinner is an excavation from a single midden, it is the only midden on the site and the size has been determined to be similar to that observed for cabins elsewhere.

Note 2: The sample from Norton is from a transect that cuts across the village hitting most houses at right angle. It may still be problematic but is much more likely to be representative than an excavation from a small locus within the site.

Note 3: A randomly selected subset of the debitage was analyzed in this analysis.

Appendix B: Spatial Analysis with GIS This appendix provides the detailed description of how the intra-site spatial analysis was done using a Geographic Information System (GIS), MFWorks, by Keigan Systems of London, Ontario. The mathematics used and the GIS scripts are included. This discussion assumes some knowledge of MFWorks. There are basically three steps to this analysis.

1. Create a GIS map that divides up the site under consideration into a series of areas to be analyzed. Ideally, the areas so defined should represent units that reflect the cultural use of the space by the inhabitants, for example, longhouses or middens.

2. The flake data must be imported into the GIS creating one map for each type being analyzed. For example, for chert type analysis four maps would be imported, one for each of Kettle Point chert, Onondaga chert, local till chert and AOther@ chert.

3. Finally the maps from the above two steps are used to calculate the differences by area and the statistical significance of the differences.

1. Assignment of Village Space The ideal situation for conducting internal spatial analysis would be where we are dealing with fully excavated sites with complete settlement pattern data. Unfortunately, there is only one fully excavated village site in the London area, the Calvert Site (Timmins 1997).

While there are several fully excavated agricultural cabin sites, these are not suitable for the purpose of determining intra-village differential access to chert sources since they usually consist of one or two long houses with an associated midden. Furthermore, these sites would be best interpreted as being occupied by a single lineage. Partial excavations, such as the two midden samples from Harrietsville that initiated this investigation, can be indicative of internal patterning but only tell a partial story and are highly dependent on the areas actually excavated. The only other source of data, then, are the controlled surface pick-ups (CSP) of village sites. While a CSP fails to identify the internal house structure, it defines the site boundaries and can generally define the midden areas. The middens can generally be related to nearby longhouses and consequently to the occupants of those houses. Thus, the midden areas, at least, could be used to define discrete spatial units. The areas between the middens are more problematic with the difficulty coming from not knowing the house orientation. However, if the analysis is restricted to the middens much other information located in the non-midden areas of the site would be discarded. Thus, we are faced with the problem of assigning space within the village but not knowing the underlying settlement patterns.

One possible technique for assigning spatial categories to non-midden areas would be to assign the non-midden area within the site boundary to the nearest midden.

With this assignment, various categories of artefacts could then be analyzed using this division of the village as the spatial control. This procedure involves carving up the internal village space and assigning it to the nearest midden by constructing a Voronoi network (Chrisman 1997: 152 ) around the middens with the MFworks operation _Fence_. Another term for this carving up of space is Theisen polygons (see Hodder and Orton [1976] for another archaeological use of this technique). The script that creates these areas follows.

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Briefly, this script breaks all the area within the village into a number of subareas. Each midden is a sub-area and all of the interior space within the village is assigned to the nearest midden giving twice as many sub-areas as there are middens.

The script requires two input maps, NumberedMiddens and SiteMask. The first map shows only the midden locations and was created from a map that plots all artefacts recovered with the CSP by tracing out the midden areas. Everything inside the midden boundaries is numbered preferably with the assigned midden numbers (e.g. Midden 1 etc.) and everything else is Avoid@. The second map defines the site boundary and has a value of _1_ outside the village and Avoid@ inside. This map was created by tracing the site boundary as was evident in the original CSP. The result of this process is a map labeled CulturalAreas, and it defines the divisions used in this analysis. This map is used as input to the internal spatial analysis.

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