FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 11 |

«Translating Restaurants' Menus from English into Arabic: Problems and Strategies By Kefaya Adeeb Hafeth Saleh Supervisor Dr. Odeh Odeh Co-Supervisor ...»

-- [ Page 8 ] --

One more example is taken from Subway menu. In the part of sandwiches there is a phrase that describes the length of the sandwich. The phrase of "6 inch or foot long?" is translated literally as " 6." The literal translation here is unacceptable in the TC since it is not usual to connect food with foot or with measurements. It is against the TC norms and it diverges from customers' expectations which may cause message distortion. Therefore, the translator suggests an

alternative translation as:

–  –  –

Two pictures that represent the two lengths of the sandwich can make the translation more reliable.

5.4. Adaptation Schaffner (2000: 333-336) emphasizes the attempts to localize borrowed concepts or forms, to achieve acceptance by the intended receptors. Hatim (1997: 19-20) defines adaptation as a general strategy that includes other techniques of adjustment such as addition, omission and cultural substitution. The need for adjustment is due to the difference among the socio-cultural aspects between the SC market and the TC market. Such aspects include religion, mores and commercial habits.

Adaptation is seen by many scholars as a target-oriented strategy that respects the local color of the TC. Consequently, it produces target texts which are representative of the TC norms, values and expectations.

Adaptation is used to adjust the SL sentence or phrase to the TL and to meet the expectations of the target audience.

5.4.1. Adaptation of slogans

Slogans have a promotional function. They express the role of the menu as a tool of advertising. Therefore, they should be rendered in an emotive style that appeals to customers and goes with the cultural and social habits of the receiving audience. The following table includes some slogans and their translations in the TL.

Table (6): examples of slogans and their adaptation into Arabic.

–  –  –

(See Appendix B.) The translators here do not opt to literal translation although it can convey the meaning. Instead, they adapt the sentences into more attractive and stronger statements of advertising. Interestingly, the adapted translations are as short as the original or may be shorter. Further, they express the translator's creativity and linguistic ability. Let's take the example of "Experience the best Taste and Price" which could be literally translated as " ". However, the translator adapts the statement to produce a translation with a high level of assurance and certainty. The translation as " " conveys a direct message that there is no need for experience as for sure you will like the taste and price.

One more example in which the translator adapts the statement to the TC norms and habits, is that of "make any 6-inch salad". The presented Arabic rendering as ". " is preferable ". Suppose the translator has rendered the sentence literally as " 6 ". Most likely, such a translation is expected not to be favoured by most Arab customers since it is not a common thing in Arab culture or mind to connect food items such as "salad" and measurement units such as "inch!" Therefore, the adapted translation as " " suggests nicely the free choice of salad.

5.4.2. Adaptation of CSCs:

When the SL word has no direct equivalent in Arabic, it becomes a problem in translation. In order to fill the cultural gap between the SC and the TC, translators opt to adapt the terms through different techniques, such as paraphrase or cultural substitution. Baker (1992: 38) suggests paraphrase to deal with CSCs that are not lexicalized in the TL. Next are some

examples in which SL items are adapted by paraphrase and description:

Table (7): examples of adaptation by paraphrase and description.

–  –  –

Obviously, the TL versions are successful as they are informative enough in a precise style. Here, the translators introduce the food item or the dish in few words that describe the nature of the item such as "slush" which is translated as " ", or tell the origin of the product such as "mozzarella cheese" rendered as " " and "Twist" rendered as " ". Moreover, paraphrase becomes necessary in certain conditions to avoid misleading literal translation. For example, "clear soup" is adapted as " " instead of a literal translation as " ". In this particular example, literal translation sounds meaningless, which reinforces the need for adaptation that is more informative and satisfactory.

However, adaptation requires professional and knowledgeable translators who can give the accurate descriptions of the food item or the dish to avoid some translation mistakes or shortcomings. For instance, "Waldrof salad" is paraphrased as " " although it mainly includes apple, celery and mayonnaise while orange is not included. Therefore, it can be better translated as " ".

Another level of adaptation can be achieved through cultural substitution. Baker (1992: 31) defines cultural substitution as the process of using a cultural–specific item that can replace a TL item achieving the same, or nearly the same, influence on the recipients in the TC. The decision to use the strategy depends on the license given to the translator and the purpose of translation. In regard to menu translation, the aim is to inform the customers and convince them to choose the meal. The alternative target item can achieve the aim without message distortion. For example, the term "San Peters" is substituted by " ".

5.4.3. Adaptation for emotive purposes:

Sometimes, adaptation is used to convey the message in an emotive style that attracts the customers. For instance," large fries" is translated as " "instead of " "to indicate that the amount of fries is enough for the whole family which, in turn, is expected to increase the orders.

Let's take another example for more clarification. The term "Black Mushrooms" is adapted into " "instead of" ".

The term " " meaning "wild" is connected with high quality and purity since the wild is the original source of mushroom. On the other hand, " " is less emotive in relation to mushrooms.

5.4.4. Adaptation following the name of the food operation One example that attracted the attention of the researcher is the adaptation of the food product for the benefit of the food company, not for the benefit of the target audience. In this example, Texas Chicken in Jordan presents a special translation for the term "Biscuits" as" "which means "the bread of Texas". In this way, the food operation matches the food item to its name in a form of monopoly. Still, such a translation can be misleading because it sounds as an American product related to the state of Texas. Transliteration or pictures are the best solution to avoid this confusion or monopoly of the product by a particular food operation.

The previous examples of adaptation prove that translation is a process of re-writing and creativity which is illustrated by different techniques, such as addition and omission. These strategies/ techniques will be discussed in detail in the following sections.

5.5. Addition In their attempts to adapt the text to the TC and, subsequently, to attract a large number of customers, translators sometimes choose to add some information at the level of words, phrases or sentences. The primary reason for addition, according to Obeidat (2005: 103), is "to clarify complex or unfamiliar notions and concepts to the reader." Newmark (1988: 91) clarifies that the added information can be cultural, technical or linguistic. When the added information is necessary to solve some translation problems and to clarify odd names of dishes, addition becomes justified and preferred. However, it is unjustifiable and misleading if the added information presents meanings that do not exist in the ST. In this context, it goes under overtranslation. The reasons behind addition are varied. The sample of the study shows that addition is used at different levels and for different purposes.

5.5.1. Addition at word level

One word that may be added to the text can be very useful for the overall meaning, especially in the case of food menus that are rich in odd names. Most likely, the added word has a function according to the situation. The next table includes some examples of single words (the underlined) being added for different purposes Table (8): Examples of addition at word level.

–  –  –

Here, the added words work for better comprehension. The word can add certain details that do not exist in the ST to remove any ambiguity or mistaken interpretations. The example of "cheese crust pizza" which is translated as " " is a clear one. The added word " " meaning "mozzarella" makes it clear what kind of cheese is being used as cheese has different types such as "Ricotta"," Romano" and so on. The same can be said about "stuffed chicken" rendered as " ", in which the word " " meaning "breast" is added to answer an expected question by customers about the part of the chicken used in this particular dish. It explains directly that it is breast not thigh or wing, for example. The added information is useful because most people usually prefer a part to another. Let's take another example for more clarification. "Ice cream" is translated into " " in which the word " " meaning "plain" is used to distinguish the ice cream in question from the other types of ice cream that may include nuts or fruits.

Further, one word can be a key to clarify the odd names of foreign dishes, especially those belonging to international cuisines other than English. The two examples that represent the idea are the fourth and the fifth examples in the previous table. For instance, the addition of " " meaning "butter" helps to clarify the French name "maitre d'hotel". Without it the product is unclear since no information is available about its nature or type. It is just one word that summarizes the description of the product. The same is true for adding the word " " to the transliterated word " ". It is necessary to clarify the type of dish which has no counterpart in Arabic. In the case of CSCs, the addition of key words is very effective in conveying the message and meeting customers' expectations. Moreover, they remove the oddness of some foreign food items.

Some additions are emotive ones to attract the customers and to convey an advertising message. Newmark (1988: 133) believes that translators sometimes need to use emotive and effective elements if the context requires it. With regard to menus, emotive language clearly helps to achieve the advertising theme of the menu. The following table introduces

three examples of addition for emotive style:

Table (9): addition for promotional purposes

–  –  –

Here, the addition of effective and appellative adjectives is positive as it does not cause message distortion. The word " " which means "varied" in the first example implying that the dish contains several choices. In the second example, the added adjective " " meaning "deep fried" tends to attract customers as fried bread is preferred by many customers. The same can be said of the word " " meaning "natural" in the third example. It persuades more customers to order the dish because people usually prefer natural food items which express purity and a healthy nature to them. However, it may be unfaithful since the honey may not be natural.

Moreover, one important use of addition is to meet the norms and values of the TC and to remove cultural and religious connotations. A clear example is Texas Chicken in which the word " " meaning "permissible" is added to satisfy the Arab customers in Jordan who may attribute the brand name to the USA where Texas is a state. To avoid such confusion that can cause the customers to keep a way from the restaurant, the word " " is added. Moreover, full sentences can be added for the same purpose as discussed earlier in the previous chapter. (See Chapter Four).

5.5.2. Addition at the phrase level

Sometimes, one word may not be enough to achieve the intended aim of addition either for linguistic reasons or content requirements.

Therefore, the addition at phrase level occurs more frequently than adding single words. Sometimes the additions are being criticized by some people as examples of overtranslation. In the following table, there are some

examples of successful additions at phrase level for varied functions:

Table (10): examples of addition at phrase level.

–  –  –

Obviously, the previous table includes varied examples of different parts of the menu such as soups, main dishes and desserts. In each context, the added details have a purpose. The first purpose is to clarify the odd names of dishes and food items. For example, the phrase " " meaning "Mexican dish" is an additional note that defines the "taco shells" as a Mexican dish which implies the major characteristics of the Mexican food such as being hot and spicy.

Another purpose for addition is to clarify the available choices of the dish. In the example of "Sbarro pizza dough " rendered a " ", the added two words " " meaning " traditional" and " " meaning " thick" represent two choices of the same dough. It proves that few words can simplify a complex name and affect positively the customer's choice depending on the translators first hand experience.

–  –  –

Sometimes the words are added to clarify the style of cooking such as the example of "lasagna" which is translated as " ". The addition of the phrase " " meaning "in the oven" tends to specify the method of cooking. The same can be said of "fritters banana" rendered as " ". The added phrase " " meaning" fried with honey" makes the dish sound as a dessert and not a fresh fruit, for example. In other words, it is necessary to clarify the nature of the dishalthough it may violate the theme of economy in translation.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 6 | 7 || 9 | 10 |   ...   | 11 |

Similar works:

«Craft and Design Factors that Influence Design August 1998 HIGHER STILL Craft and Design Factors that Influence Design Support Materials *+,-./ CONTENTS Introduction Fitness for purpose Choice of materials Durability Ease of maintenance Efficiency Running costs Fashion Safety Obsolescence Environmental and Social considerations Technological opportunity Consumer demand Social behaviour Economics Commercial enterprise Craft and Design Support Materials: Factors that Influence Design Craft and...»

«STOCKS IN FOCUS Research Report 3rd June 2016 w Technical Research Nifty likely to consolidate before next leg upmove Benchmark Index hovering near resistance cluster: Benchmark Index Nifty has continued the positive momentum from last week and has closed the week with gains of 0.8%. During the week Nifty witnessed subdued price action though closed with gains on most days indicating positive bias. The pace of advances declined as Nifty is approaching resistance zone. 8,243 which is the 61.82%...»

«FN-001 CREACIÓN Y CAPTURA DE VALOR Si una empresa pretende alcanzar ventaja competitiva, es necesario que entienda los elementos que subyacen a los procesos de creación y captura de valor. Sin embargo, conceptos como creación de valor reciben interpretaciones erróneas en la conversación empresarial informal, mientras que conceptos como captura de valor son menos conocidos y reciben menos atención por parte de los empresarios, a pesar de que saber cómo capturar valor no es menos...»

«1907 CONVENTION FOR THE PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES CONVENTION for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes* His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; the President of the United States of America; the President of the Argentine Republic; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; the President of the Republic of Bolivia; the President of the Republic of the United States of...»

«Comunicado de prensa HP presenta EliteBook y amplía su portafolio de computadoras portátiles para el empresa BERLÍN, 10 de junio de 2008 – HP presentó el día de hoy la resistente línea de PCs portátiles HP EliteBook —inspirada en el diseño aeronáutico— como parte de los 10 nuevos productos incorporados en su línea de PCs portátiles empresariales, la cual fusiona la funcionalidad con el diseño sofisticado. Presentada durante el evento HP Connecting Your World, la HP EliteBook...»

«Search Pathways to Innovation1 Tommy Høyvarde Clausen Nordland Research Institute N – 8049 Bodø, Norway Fax: (+47) 75 51 72 34 Tel: (+47) 75 51 78 78 tommy.clausen@nforsk.no Abstract Organizational search processes is an important source of firm level heterogeneity in evolutionary behavioural theory. Combining insights from established and recent evolutionary-behavioural theory we propose that R&D and managerial perceptions constitute two distinct search pathways to innovation. R&D is in...»

«DWELLING & HOMEOWNERS EXPOSURES AND INSURANCE SANDI KRUISE INSURANCE TRAINING 1-800-517-7500 www.kruise.com DWELLING & HOMEOWNERS EXPOSURES AND INSURANCE First Edition – Copyright 2004 WRITTEN BY: Sandi Kruise, CPCU, CPIW PUBLISHED BY: Sandi Kruise Insurance Training P O BOX 786 BONITA, CA 91908-0786 1-800-517-7500 www.kruise.com Copyright 2004 2015, All Rights Reserved. No portion of this book may be reprodu ced in any manner whatsoever without express written permission of the publisher. ©...»

«Deal or No Deal: How Yo-Yo Scams Rig the Game against Car Buyers INTRODUCTION Throughout 2011, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) convened a series of roundtables to explore abusive practices in the auto lending market. One abuse that received particular attention was the “yo-yo scam. The yo-yo scam occurs when a car buyer who finances the car through the dealer believes that the financing is final or is as good as final. The dealer lures the consumer back to the dealership, claims the...»

«Running Head: COMPREHENSION OF CLOSED CAPTIONS FOR THE DEAF Television Literacy: Comprehension of Program Content Using Closed-Captions for the Deaf Margaret S. Jelinek Lewis and Dorothy W. Jackson The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Television Literacy 2 Abstract With the intent of making television accessible to people who are deaf and hard of hearing, the Television Decoder Circuitry Act of 1990 states that all U.S.-sold television sets with screens 13 inches or larger are required to...»

«OUR TRIP TO THE NUCLEAR TEST SITE JUNE, 2013 BROWNLEE TRIBE AND GUESTS A NOTEWORTHY CREW! OUR TRIP TO THE NEVADA NUCLEAR TEST SITE In June, 2013, a bus load of visitors (mostly the Brownlee family) visited the NTS for a day, and found it vastly more interesting than its emptiness might suggest. There were many scenes strongly suggestive of an amazing past, and stories and detailed information from those present. Personal cameras were not allowed, so many of the pictures contained herein are...»


«International Journal of Database Management Systems ( IJDMS ) Vol.3, No.4, November 2011 A CONCURRENCY CONTROL METHOD BASED ON COMMITMENT ORDERING IN MOBILE DATABASES Ali Karami1 and Ahmad Baraani-Dastjerdi2 Department of Computer Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran ali.karami9@yahoo.com Department of Computer Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran ahmadb@eng.ui.ac.ir ABSTRACT Disconnection of mobile clients from server, in an unclear time and for an unknown duration,...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.