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«NG SO R U U T N P D CA k k at z HOW T EC ar H m N O O L IC G Y S MU HA SC HANGED UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOR NIA PRESS BERKELEY LOS ANGELES LONDON ...»

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3. Examples include Beastie Boys, “So Wat’cha Want” (1992); Fugees, “Fugee-La” (1996); Beck, “Where It’s At” (1997); Whiskeytown, “What the Devil Wanted” (2001); Wagon Christ, “Perkission” (2001); and Oasis, “Hindu Times” (2002). For more examples and an interesting discussion of the purposeful addition of “transduction noise” in recent pop music, see Stan Link, “The Work of Reproduction in the Mechanical Aging of an Art: Listening to Noise,” Computer Music Journal 25 (spring 2001): 34–47.

4. F. Richard Moore, Elements of Computer Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice-Hall, 1990), 27.

5. Paul Lansky, Notjustmoreidlechatter, on More Than Idle Chatter (Bridge compact disc BCD 9050). Lansky’s other “chatter works” are Idle Chatter (1985), just_more_idle_chatter (1987), and Idle Chatter Junior (1999).

The first two are included on More Than Idle Chatter; the most recent was released in 2000 on Paul Lansky, Ride (Bridge compact disc BCD 9103). Lansky also manipulates speech, though in different ways, in several works on Conversation Pieces (Bridge compact disc BCD 9083).

6. Paul Lansky, e-mail message to author, 28 June 2001.

7. Paul Lansky, e-mail message to author, 7 April 2003.

8. www.cdemusic.org/artists/lansky.html.

9. “Praise You” was released on You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby (Skint compact disc BRASSIC11CD 66247–2); “Take Yo’ Praise” has been rereleased on The Iron Pot Cooker (Vanguard compact disc 79356-2).

–  –  –

228 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 47 – 5 2 See Mark Dery, “Public Enemy: Confrontation,” Keyboard 16 (September 1990): 81–96.

24. Ibid., 92.

25. For more on the relationship between DJing and producing, see Schloss, “Making Beats,” 65–74.

26. Dery, “Public Enemy,” 92.

27. Olly Wilson, “The Heterogeneous Sound Ideal in African-American Music,” in Signifyin(g), Sanctifyin’, and Slam Dunking: A Reader in

African American Expressive Culture, ed. Gena Dagel Caponi (Amherst:

University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), 159.

28. Chuck D. proves prescient here, for Elvis Presley, who is derided earlier in the song as “straight up racist,” was put on a United States postage stamp to great fanfare in 1992, not long after the release of the song.

29. Bobby McFerrin’s “Don’t Worry, Be Happy” is also cited, though this sunny song is held up for derision.

30. Rose, Black Noise, 71.

31. Jake One, quoted in Schloss, “Making Beats,” 79.

32. Stetsasonic, “Talkin’ All that Jazz” (1988), on In Full Gear (Tommy Boy compact disc 1459).

33. Gates, Signifying Monkey, 51.

34. For a discussion of the way that music problematizes this distinction, see Vaidhyanathan, Copyrights and Copywrongs, 117–18.

35. Dery, “Public Enemy,” 92.

CHAPTER EIGHT

1. All Music Guide, www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&uid=UIDSUB 040401021529162800&sql=Absuw6j7271y0.

2. T. Taylor, Strange Sounds, 3.

There are other file-compression formats, such as Windows Media 3.

Audio (WMA), Real Audio, Ogg Vorbis, and AAC. However, I will be focusing on MP3, as it is the current de facto standard for file-sharing.

4. Charles C. Mann, “The Heavenly Jukebox,” Atlantic Monthly 286 (September 2000): 53, online at www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/09/mann.htm.

5. My thanks to Christopher Burns for clarifying the concept of perceptual coding to me. For a very lucid explanation of perceptual coding and, more generally, the process of creating MP3 files, see Paul Sellars, “Behind the Mask—Perceptual Coding: How MP3 Compression Works,” Sound on Sound (May 2000), www.sospubs.co.uk/sos/may00/ articles/mp3.htm.

It should also be noted that not all MP3s have the same sound quality. The sound quality depends on the bit rate—the average number of

–  –  –

1. Hindemith’s recordings and their fate are discussed in Martin Elste, “Hindemiths Versuche ‘grammophonplatten-eigene Stücke’ im Kontext einer Ideengeschichte der Mechanische Musik im 20. Jahrhundert,” Hindemith Jahrbuch 25 (1996): 195–221; and idem, “Hindemith’s Experiments with the Gramophone: Long Lost Recordings Rediscovered” (paper presented at the conference of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections, Syracuse, NY, May 1998).

2. For more on these festivals, see Josef Häusler, Spiegel der neuen Musik:

Donaueschingen (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996).

3. The program for the Neue Musik Berlin 1930 festival is reprinted in ibid., 430.

4. Martin Elste has tested this possibility by overdubbing two recordings of the work eight beats apart. I have heard Elste’s canonic recording and find it effective, though it is only speculation that Hindemith played the recordings in this way.

5. “Arie mit Klavierbegleitung schreibt, in der sich die menschliche Stimme in einem Umfang von ungefähr 3½ Oktaven ergeht” (Willi Schuh, “Neue Musik Berlin 1930,” Schweizerische Musikzeitung 70 [1 August 1930]: 550).

6. “Über meinen Beitrag zur Original-Grammophon-Musik möchte ich sagen: dem Versuch liegt der Gedanke zugrunde, die Maschine, die bisher der möglichst getreuen Reproduktion von original ausgeführter Musik galt, erweiternd dahin auszunützen, daß sie durch die Besonderheit ihrer Funktion und durch die Auswertung jener Abfall-Zone ihrer Möglichkeiten, welche für ihren eigentlichen Zweck (eben die getreue Reproduktion) wertlos, weil verändernd ist, eine ihr typische, arteigene Musik hervorbringe” (Toch, “Über meine Kantate ‘Das





Wasser’ und meine Grammophonmusik,” Melos 9 [May–June 1930]:

221–22).

7. “Ich wählte dazu das gesprochene Wort und ließ einen vierstimmigen gemischten Kammerchor genau festgelegte Rhythmen, Vokale, Konsonanten, Silben, und Worte so sprechen, daß unter Einschaltung der

–  –  –

220 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 0 3 – 5 20; quoted in Friedrich A. Kittler, Gramophone, Film, Typewriter, trans.

Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and Michael Wutz (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), 39–40.

12. László Moholy-Nagy, “Produktion—Reproduktion,” De Stijl, no. 7 (1922); translation in Moholy-Nagy, ed. and trans. Krisztina Passuth (London: Thames & Hudson, 1985), 290.

13. László Moholy-Nagy, “Neue Gestaltung in der Musik: Möglichkeiten des Grammophons,” Der Sturm, no. 14 ( July 1923); translation ibid., 291.

14. “Die Mannigfaltigkeit der Klänge wird das alte Orchester ganz primitiv erscheinen lassen... Die Rolle des Interpreten gehört der Vergangenheit an” (H. H. Stuckenschmidt, “Die Mechanisierung der Musik,” Pult und Taktstock 2 [1925]: 8).

15. “Der vorliegende Aufsatz wird allgemeines Kopfschütteln hervorrufen.

Namentlich bei den Dirigenten” (ibid., 1).

16. H. H. Stuckenschmidt, “Machines—A Vision of the Future,” Modern Music 4 (March–April 1927): 9, 11.

17. Ibid.

ˇ

18. Ernst Krenek, Music Here and Now, trans. Barthold Fles (New York:

Norton, 1939), 238.

19. The idea of indexical notation was taken up by Theodor Adorno in the mid-1930s. See Thomas Y. Levin, “For the Record: Adorno on Music in

the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,” October 5 (winter 1990):

32–38.

20. “Konzert für Grammophon mit Begleitung einiger ‘realer’ Instrumente” (Hansjörg Dammert, “Grammophon-Konzerte,” Musikblätter des Anbruch 8 [October–November 1926]: 406).

21. “Welche Möglichkeiten hat ein Komponist, den Solopart zu nuancieren, was Klang sowohl wie auch Farben anbelangt! Wie eigenartig und wechselvoll kann man die Unterhaltung der beiden Klanggruppen gestalten, als Gegeneinanderbewegung und auch als Folge von Solo und Tutti! (Man denke sich zum Beispiel zu einer matten Farbe des Begleitungensembles, sagen wir Flöte, sordinierte Violine, Klavier in höherer Lage, den sonoren Klang eines vom Blech gestützten Streichorchesters in Phonographen.) Also: die Mittel diese Art zu musizieren, sind fast unbegrenzt, von Einfachsten bis zum Raffiniertesten” (ibid., 407).

22. Hugh Davies, “A History of Sampling,” Organised Sound 1 (April 1996): 9.

23. On Hoérée, see Richard S. James, “Expansion of Sound Resources in France, 1913–1940, and its Relationship to Electronic Music” (Ph.D.

diss., University of Michigan, 1981), 250. Antheil’s work is cited (but not

–  –  –

1. Babu explains how he came up with the term in the 2001 documentary film Scratch (Palm digital videodisc 3046-2). Scratch, as well as the 1997 documentary Battle Sounds (videotape, no label number, available through www.battlesounds.com), is required viewing for anyone interested in the world of the hip-hop DJ.

2. Turntablists are not the only DJs who do more than play records. Those who spin records at dance clubs often manipulate and combine songs in a variety of creative ways. See Sarah Thornton, Club Cultures: Music, Media, and Subcultural Capital (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1996), 63–66; and Kai Fikentscher, “You Better Work!”: Underground Dance Music in New York City (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 2000), 33–56.

3. This story has been recounted in a number of sources. Livingston himself retells it in Battle Sounds and Scratch. See also Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life (New York: Grove

Press, 2000), 224–25; and Jim Fricke and Charlie Ahearn, Yes Yes Y’all:

The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip-Hop’s First Decade (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2002), 63.

4. Although the birth of turntablism is usually traced to the Bronx of the 1970s, DJs in Jamaica, where Kool Herc and others had roots, had earlier practiced similar forms of sound manipulation. See Dick Hebdige, Cut ’n’ Mix: Culture, Identity, and Caribbean Music (London: Comedia, 1987), 136–48. An even earlier, though unrelated, type of phonographic manipulation was, as discussed in chapter 5, practiced by Paul Hindemith, Ernst Toch, John Cage, and others starting in the 1920s.

5. Fricke and Ahearn, Yes Yes Y’all, 63.

6. There is an analogous practice using reel-to-reel tape recorders known as scrubbing. The tape is manually moved back and forth against the playback head in order to locate a specific point on the tape for editing purposes. The sound it produces is similar to that of scratching.

Although scrubbing predates scratching, no similar musical practice arose from it, and it seems to have no connection to turntablism. I am

–  –  –

224 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 17 – 2 2

16. See Oliver Wang, “Legions of Boom: Filipino American Disc Jockeys in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1970s–1990s” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 2004).

17. DJ A-Trak, e-mail message to author, 26 August 2002.

18. Routine by DJ Dexta, on Technics World DJ Championship 1999 (1999), DMC videocassette VWF 99.

19. This routine is included on The Allies Present: Allstar Beatdown July 20, 2001, Turntable Thugs videocassette, 2001.

20. Roli Rho, quoted in Scratch Academy Semester 1, ScratchVideo Productions DVD, 2003.

21. Supa Dave, conversation with author, Baltimore, 25 April 2002.

22. Christine Z-Pabon, e-mail announcement for the 2001 Zulu Nation DJ Battle, 29 October 2001.

23. Z-Pabon, e-mail message to author, 16 November 2002.

24. Rob Swift, quoted in Chris Macias, “X-tra Strength Funk,” Heckler Magazine, online at www.heckler.com/old_heckler/5.6/music/xecutioners.html (viewed 31 March 2002; now defunct).

25. For more detailed explanations of these terms, interested readers may consult the wide variety of DJ tutorials, available in many forms. Videos include Turntable Wizardry Stage 1 (Up Above videocassette, no label number, n.d.); Shure Turntablism 101 (Shure videocassette TT101, 2000); and DJ QBerts Complete Do-It-Yourself, Vol. 1: Skratching (ThudRumble DVD, DIY001-DVD, n.d.). Stephen Webber’s Turntable Technique: The Art of the DJ (Boston: Berklee Press, 2000) consists of a book and two LPs. A number of Internet tutorials have come and gone in recent years, a good one (as of mid-2003) being The Ever, billed as “The Most Comprehensive Scratch Tutorial Ever,” at www.asisphonics.net/ theever.html. My thanks to Felicia Miyakawa for telling me of this site.

26. Hebdige, Cut ’n’ Mix, 142.

27. Sugarcuts, conversation with author, New York City, 5 June 2002.

28. Swift, interview with author. The lack of improvisation distinguishes DJ battles from MC (rap) battles, in which contestants are expected to improvise to a certain extent. Part of the difference between battles stems from the fact that in DJ battles, the records determine the material of the routine, while MCs have more flexibility. MC battles have become more popular of late, due in part to the success of the 2002 film 8 Mile, starring rapper Eminem. The raucous battle scenes in the film nicely capture the atmosphere of both MC and DJ battles, though battles of both types tend to be more racially and ethnically diverse than depicted in the film.

29. I.Emerge is a New York–based turntablist whose crew affiliations include the 5th Platoon, the Zulu Kings New York, and the Fader Bal

–  –  –

226 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 2 8 – 3 4 Turntable Wizardry Stage 1 videocassette.

41.

42. Z-Pabon, e-mail message to author.

43. Deborah Tannen, Talking from 9 to 5 (New York: Morrow, 1994), 236.

See also Walter J. Ong, Fighting for Life: Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981).

44. Tricia Rose, Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary Culture (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan University Press, 1994), 57.

45. According to John Carluccio, director of the Battle Sounds documentary, battles are sometimes described as “almanacs,” for battle videos circulate widely within the DJ community and are closely studied by turntablists (telephone conversation with author, 16 October 2001).

CHAPTER SEVEN

1. “Funky Drummer” was originally released as an LP on King 6290 in

1970. It has been reissued on Star Time, Polydor compact disc 849 108.

2. Many more examples of “Funky Drummer” borrowings are cited at the Sample FAQ, a generally reliable resource for identifying samples in popular music, www.the-breaks.com/perl/search.pl?term=Funky+ Drummer&type=4.

3. Examples include Beastie Boys, “So Wat’cha Want” (1992); Fugees, “Fugee-La” (1996); Beck, “Where It’s At” (1997); Whiskeytown, “What the Devil Wanted” (2001); Wagon Christ, “Perkission” (2001); and Oasis, “Hindu Times” (2002). For more examples and an interesting discussion of the purposeful addition of “transduction noise” in recent pop music, see Stan Link, “The Work of Reproduction in the Mechanical Aging of an Art: Listening to Noise,” Computer Music Journal 25 (spring 2001): 34–47.

4. F. Richard Moore, Elements of Computer Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice-Hall, 1990), 27.

5. Paul Lansky, Notjustmoreidlechatter, on More Than Idle Chatter (Bridge compact disc BCD 9050). Lansky’s other “chatter works” are Idle Chatter (1985), just_more_idle_chatter (1987), and Idle Chatter Junior (1999).

The first two are included on More Than Idle Chatter; the most recent was released in 2000 on Paul Lansky, Ride (Bridge compact disc BCD 9103). Lansky also manipulates speech, though in different ways, in several works on Conversation Pieces (Bridge compact disc BCD 9083).

6. Paul Lansky, e-mail message to author, 28 June 2001.

7. Paul Lansky, e-mail message to author, 7 April 2003.

8. www.cdemusic.org/artists/lansky.html.

9. “Praise You” was released on You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby (Skint compact disc BRASSIC11CD 66247–2); “Take Yo’ Praise” has been rereleased on The Iron Pot Cooker (Vanguard compact disc 79356-2).

–  –  –

228 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 47 – 5 2 See Mark Dery, “Public Enemy: Confrontation,” Keyboard 16 (September 1990): 81–96.

24. Ibid., 92.

25. For more on the relationship between DJing and producing, see Schloss, “Making Beats,” 65–74.

26. Dery, “Public Enemy,” 92.

27. Olly Wilson, “The Heterogeneous Sound Ideal in African-American Music,” in Signifyin(g), Sanctifyin’, and Slam Dunking: A Reader in

African American Expressive Culture, ed. Gena Dagel Caponi (Amherst:

University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), 159.

28. Chuck D. proves prescient here, for Elvis Presley, who is derided earlier in the song as “straight up racist,” was put on a United States postage stamp to great fanfare in 1992, not long after the release of the song.

29. Bobby McFerrin’s “Don’t Worry, Be Happy” is also cited, though this sunny song is held up for derision.

30. Rose, Black Noise, 71.

31. Jake One, quoted in Schloss, “Making Beats,” 79.

32. Stetsasonic, “Talkin’ All that Jazz” (1988), on In Full Gear (Tommy Boy compact disc 1459).

33. Gates, Signifying Monkey, 51.

34. For a discussion of the way that music problematizes this distinction, see Vaidhyanathan, Copyrights and Copywrongs, 117–18.

35. Dery, “Public Enemy,” 92.

CHAPTER EIGHT

1. All Music Guide, www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&uid=UIDSUB 040401021529162800&sql=Absuw6j7271y0.

2. T. Taylor, Strange Sounds, 3.

There are other file-compression formats, such as Windows Media 3.

Audio (WMA), Real Audio, Ogg Vorbis, and AAC. However, I will be focusing on MP3, as it is the current de facto standard for file-sharing.

4. Charles C. Mann, “The Heavenly Jukebox,” Atlantic Monthly 286 (September 2000): 53, online at www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/09/mann.htm.

5. My thanks to Christopher Burns for clarifying the concept of perceptual coding to me. For a very lucid explanation of perceptual coding and, more generally, the process of creating MP3 files, see Paul Sellars, “Behind the Mask—Perceptual Coding: How MP3 Compression Works,” Sound on Sound (May 2000), www.sospubs.co.uk/sos/may00/ articles/mp3.htm.

It should also be noted that not all MP3s have the same sound quality. The sound quality depends on the bit rate—the average number of

–  –  –



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