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Fromm International, 1997), 371.
51. What exactly constitutes a musical work is far from a simple matter, one with which philosophers and aestheticians have long struggled. See, for
198 N OT E S TO PA G E S 2 5 – 2 8 Many say they ﬁnd the experience unpleasant. This is frequently reported in the interviews in Harvith and Harvith, eds., Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph; and Badal, Recording the Classics.
62. Martina Arroyo, interview with John Harvith and Susan Edwards Harvith, 1 May 1977, in Harvith and Harvith, eds., Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph, 225.
63. Quoted in “The Phonograph as an Aid to Composers,” Phonogram, no.
3 ( July 1900): 67.
64. I make this argument, with particular attention to violin playing, in “The Phonograph Eﬀect: The Inﬂuence of Recording on Listener, Performer, Composer, 1900–1940” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1999), 138–62.
65. George Gershwin, “The Composer in the Machine Age” (1933), in The American Composer Speaks, ed. Gilbert Chase (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966), 144.
66. Béla Bartók, “Mechanical Music,” in Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoﬀ (London: Faber & Faber, 1976), 298. Copland’s comment comes from an undated, unpublished typescript, Aaron Copland Collection, box 201, folder 7, Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. In 1950, Roger Sessions similarly explained that a recording “ceases to have interest for us... the instant we become aware of the fact of literal repetition” (The Musical Experience of Composer, Performer, Listener [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950], 70).
67. Jonathan D. Kramer, The Time of Music (New York: Schirmer, 1986), 69.
68. Arnold Schoenberg, “Mechanical Musical Instruments,” trans. Leo Black, in Style and Idea, ed. Leonard Stein (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1975), 328.
69. Recording’s inﬂuence was certainly just as slight on the work of Schoenberg’s two most famous pupils. Alban Berg never recorded; the ﬁrst discs of his music came only in 1936, the year after his death. Anton Webern recorded only his arrangement of some Schubert dances, and few of his original compositions were recorded by others during his lifetime. It would be diﬃcult to see why either man would have been moved to accommodate to a technology with which he had such sparse contact.
70. Steve Reich, “Early Works (1965–68),” in Writings on Music, 24.
71. Quoted in Tim Page, “Einstein on the Beach by Philip Glass,” in Opera:
A History in Documents, ed. Piero Weiss (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 324.
72. Four and one-half minutes was the limit for twelve-inch discs, which were introduced in 1903. Previously, the seven- and ten-inch sizes, which had considerably shorter playing times, were standard. For cylinders, two minutes was the general limit until Edison introduced the
200 N OT E S TO PA G E S 3 1 – 3 5 New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), s.v. “Leoncavallo, Ruggero”; Elgar, Carissima (1914, for orchestra), J. Moore, Elgar on Record, 5; Stravinsky, Serenade in A (1925, for piano), Stravinsky, Autobiography, 123–24; Harris, Four Minutes-20 Seconds (1934, for ﬂute and string quartet), Stehman, Roy Harris, 79; Hindemith, Scherzo (1934, for viola and piano), Seymour W. Itzkoﬀ, Emanuel Feuermann, Virtuoso (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1979), 131–32;
Pierné, Giration (1935, for orchestra), Gabriel Pierné, Giration: Divertissement chorégraphique (Paris: Maurice Senart, 1935); Kreisler, Dittersdorf Scherzo (1935, for string quartet), Louis P. Lochner, Fritz Kreisler (New York: Macmillan, 1950), 270; and Weill, “Come Up from the Fields, Father” (1947, for voice and piano), David Drew, Kurt Weill: A Handbook (London: Faber & Faber, 1987), 357.
88. Martin Williams, “Recording Limits and Blues Form,” in The Art of Jazz: Essays on the Nature and Development of Jazz (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1959), 93; Gunther Schuller, “Ellington in the Pantheon” (1974), in Mark Tucker, The Duke Ellington Reader (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1993), 417.
89. Jazz was one area in which musicians often exploited the extended playing time of LPs.
90. “The Entertainer,” written by Billy Joel © 1974, JoelSongs (ASCAP). All rights reserved. Used by permission. “The Entertainer” has been released on Streetlife Serenade, Columbia compact disc 69382.
91. “Blues Power” was released on Eric Clapton, Polydor compact disc 825 093 (studio version) and Just One Night, Polydor compact disc 800 093-2 (concert version). “Cocaine” was released on Slowhand, Polydor compact disc 823 276 (studio) and Just One Night (concert).
92. The studio and concert versions of “Killing Floor” were released on, respectively, Radio One, Rykodisc compact disc RCD 20078; and Live at Winterland, Rykodisc compact disc RCD 20038. The studio and concert versions of “Hey Joe” were released on Are You Experienced?, Reprise compact disc 6261–2; and Live at Winterland.
93. Lotte Lehmann, interview with John Harvith and Susan Edwards Harvith, 2 January 1975, in Harvith and Harvith, eds., Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph, 71. For another account of studio “pushers,” see Yvonne De Treville, “Making a Phonograph Record,” Musician 21 (November 1916): 658.
94. De Treville, “Making a Phonograph Record,” 658.
95. Henry Seymour, “The Reproduction of Sound,” Phono Record 2 (August 1913): 264–65.
96. For more on the Stroh violin, see Dick Donovan, “The Stroh Violin,” Strand 23 ( January 1902): 89–91; and Cary Clements, “Augustus Stroh
1. Babu explains how he came up with the term in the 2001 documentary ﬁlm Scratch (Palm digital videodisc 3046-2). Scratch, as well as the 1997 documentary Battle Sounds (videotape, no label number, available through www.battlesounds.com), is required viewing for anyone interested in the world of the hip-hop DJ.
2. Turntablists are not the only DJs who do more than play records. Those who spin records at dance clubs often manipulate and combine songs in a variety of creative ways. See Sarah Thornton, Club Cultures: Music, Media, and Subcultural Capital (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1996), 63–66; and Kai Fikentscher, “You Better Work!”: Underground Dance Music in New York City (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 2000), 33–56.
3. This story has been recounted in a number of sources. Livingston himself retells it in Battle Sounds and Scratch. See also Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life (New York: Grove
Press, 2000), 224–25; and Jim Fricke and Charlie Ahearn, Yes Yes Y’all:
The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip-Hop’s First Decade (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2002), 63.
4. Although the birth of turntablism is usually traced to the Bronx of the 1970s, DJs in Jamaica, where Kool Herc and others had roots, had earlier practiced similar forms of sound manipulation. See Dick Hebdige, Cut ’n’ Mix: Culture, Identity, and Caribbean Music (London: Comedia, 1987), 136–48. An even earlier, though unrelated, type of phonographic manipulation was, as discussed in chapter 5, practiced by Paul Hindemith, Ernst Toch, John Cage, and others starting in the 1920s.
5. Fricke and Ahearn, Yes Yes Y’all, 63.
6. There is an analogous practice using reel-to-reel tape recorders known as scrubbing. The tape is manually moved back and forth against the playback head in order to locate a speciﬁc point on the tape for editing purposes. The sound it produces is similar to that of scratching.
Although scrubbing predates scratching, no similar musical practice arose from it, and it seems to have no connection to turntablism. I am
224 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 17 – 2 2
16. See Oliver Wang, “Legions of Boom: Filipino American Disc Jockeys in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1970s–1990s” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 2004).
17. DJ A-Trak, e-mail message to author, 26 August 2002.
18. Routine by DJ Dexta, on Technics World DJ Championship 1999 (1999), DMC videocassette VWF 99.
19. This routine is included on The Allies Present: Allstar Beatdown July 20, 2001, Turntable Thugs videocassette, 2001.
20. Roli Rho, quoted in Scratch Academy Semester 1, ScratchVideo Productions DVD, 2003.
21. Supa Dave, conversation with author, Baltimore, 25 April 2002.
22. Christine Z-Pabon, e-mail announcement for the 2001 Zulu Nation DJ Battle, 29 October 2001.
23. Z-Pabon, e-mail message to author, 16 November 2002.
24. Rob Swift, quoted in Chris Macias, “X-tra Strength Funk,” Heckler Magazine, online at www.heckler.com/old_heckler/5.6/music/xecutioners.html (viewed 31 March 2002; now defunct).
25. For more detailed explanations of these terms, interested readers may consult the wide variety of DJ tutorials, available in many forms. Videos include Turntable Wizardry Stage 1 (Up Above videocassette, no label number, n.d.); Shure Turntablism 101 (Shure videocassette TT101, 2000); and DJ QBerts Complete Do-It-Yourself, Vol. 1: Skratching (ThudRumble DVD, DIY001-DVD, n.d.). Stephen Webber’s Turntable Technique: The Art of the DJ (Boston: Berklee Press, 2000) consists of a book and two LPs. A number of Internet tutorials have come and gone in recent years, a good one (as of mid-2003) being The Ever, billed as “The Most Comprehensive Scratch Tutorial Ever,” at www.asisphonics.net/ theever.html. My thanks to Felicia Miyakawa for telling me of this site.
26. Hebdige, Cut ’n’ Mix, 142.
27. Sugarcuts, conversation with author, New York City, 5 June 2002.
28. Swift, interview with author. The lack of improvisation distinguishes DJ battles from MC (rap) battles, in which contestants are expected to improvise to a certain extent. Part of the diﬀerence between battles stems from the fact that in DJ battles, the records determine the material of the routine, while MCs have more ﬂexibility. MC battles have become more popular of late, due in part to the success of the 2002 ﬁlm 8 Mile, starring rapper Eminem. The raucous battle scenes in the ﬁlm nicely capture the atmosphere of both MC and DJ battles, though battles of both types tend to be more racially and ethnically diverse than depicted in the ﬁlm.
29. I.Emerge is a New York–based turntablist whose crew aﬃliations include the 5th Platoon, the Zulu Kings New York, and the Fader Bal
226 N OT E S TO PA G E S 1 2 8 – 3 4 Jimi Hendrix, “Crosstown Traﬃc,” Are You Experienced, Reprise compact disc 6261-2; Led Zeppelin, “Whole Lotta Love,” Led Zeppelin II, Atlantic compact disc 11612; Radiohead, Pablo Honey, Capitol compact disc 81409. For a more extensive discussion of the musical and metaphorical uses of the stereo ﬁeld, see Albin Zak, The Poetics of Rock: Cutting Tracks, Making Records (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001), 145–51.
107. Chuck Taylor, “Do Vocal Eﬀects Go Too Far? Ability to Perfect Sound via Technology May Aﬀect Drive to Develop Talent,” Billboard 112 (30 December 2000): 89.
108. The Simpsons, episode CABF12, “New Kids on the Blecch,” originally broadcast 25 February 2001.
109. Auto-Tune, www.interphase.be/autotune.html (no longer active).
110. C. Taylor, “Do Vocal Eﬀects Go Too Far?” 89.
111. For a thoughtful analysis of Cher’s “Believe” and the “role of recording technologies in the construction of female musical corporeality,” see Kay Dickinson, “ ‘Believe’? Vocoders, Digitalised Female Identity, and Camp,” Popular Music 20 (October 2001): 333–48.
112. Some recent works on the role of recordists include Day, Century of Recorded Music; Susan Schmidt Horning, “Chasing Sound: The Culture and Technology of Recording Studios in America” (Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 2002); James P. Kraft, Stage to Studio: Musicians and the Sound Revolution, 1890–1950 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996); Massey, Behind the Glass; and Zak, Poetics of Rock.
113. Quoted in Ursula Block and Michael Glasmeier, Broken Music: Artists’ Recordworks (Berlin: Daadgalerie Berlin, 1989), 73.
114. Christian Marclay, interview with Jason Gross, Perfect Sound Forever, March 1998, www.furious.com/perfect/christianmarclay.html. For more on the work of Marclay (who is also a visual artist), see Russell Ferguson, ed., Christian Marclay (Los Angeles: UCLA Hammer Museum, 2003).
115. See Schaeﬀer’s A la recherche d’une musique concrète (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1952) and La Musique concrète (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1967). Schaeﬀer’s works are collected on Pierre Schaeﬀer: L’Oeuvre musicale, INA-GRM compact disc 1006-9.
116. These loops now reside in the Vladimir Ussachevsky Collection in the Recorded Sound section of the Library of Congress.
1. Robert Haven Schauﬄer and Sigmund Spaeth, Music as a Social Force in America (New York: Caxton Institute, 1927), 1–38. Schauﬄer’s Main
1. “Funky Drummer” was originally released as an LP on King 6290 in
1970. It has been reissued on Star Time, Polydor compact disc 849 108.
2. Many more examples of “Funky Drummer” borrowings are cited at the Sample FAQ, a generally reliable resource for identifying samples in popular music, www.the-breaks.com/perl/search.pl?term=Funky+ Drummer&type=4.