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Tourism has a great potential in Mexico due to the fact that it has generous weather that allows it to receive travelers all year round, with a well-known worldwide gastronomical diversity. Destinies with sun and beach are known internationally due to the fact that they are included in the UNESCO Worldwide Heritage List (BANCOMEXT, 2013). The diversity of touristic products and services in this sector allow the consumer to have a wider diversity of choice at the moment of making a decision. Products are anything that can be offered to a market for their attention, acquisition, use or consumption and that could satisfy a wish or need, including physical objects, services, people, places, organizations and ideas (Kotler y Armstrong, 2003). Services are economical activities that are offered from one party to another, which generally use performance based on the time taken to achieve the results wished on the own receptors, in objects and other goods that the buyers are responsible for; in exchange for their money, time and effort.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 390 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Clients wish to obtain value by accessing goods, professional abilities, premises, networks and systems;
even though generally they do not acquire the property of any of the physical elements involved (Lovelock, 2004). For Walker, Boyd, Mullins y Larréche (2002), services are the activities or benefits that a party can offer to another, essentially intangible. Before any type of marketing can affect consumers, due to the growing supply of goods and services, these have to be exposed to it. Exposure refers to the process through which a consumer comes across physically with stimuli. Marketing stimulus are messages or information about the attributes of the product, service or brand that help at the moment of choosing. Exposure is crucial to influence in the consumer’s thoughts and feelings (Hoyer y Maclnnis, 2010). Consumers preferences, are those who transfer tastes and the possibilities of election between several options, due to this it is fundamental that organizations stablish strategies to capture the consumer’s attention to push the decision of buying, based on the knowledge of taste of the consumers to be able to achieve efficient strategies.
The research was done using a questionnaire with 17 questions from which six of them were in an ordinal scale, scale in which numbers are assign to objects to indicate the relative extension that a characteristics has, due to this it is possible to determine if a product has more or less the same characteristic as another (Malhotra, 2008) and 11 had an interval scale, that is a form of scale that activates not only the assignment properties and order of scale, but also the length property. All the answers from the scale have a known absolute difference between of each of the other points (Hair, Bush, and Ortinau, 2004). The sample was not probable, technique of sampling that does not use random selective procedure, but is based on the personal judgement of the investigator, in this case 309 people were questioned from which 235 are Cancun residents and 73 Playa del Carmen residents. The questionnaire was applied by students from scientific summers (Dolphin Program and The Mexican Science Academy) every interview took approximately five minutes and was made from the 10th to the 27th of July 2015.
From the results obtained 76.3% from the residents were from Cancun, and a 23.7% were from Playa del Carmen. From which 50.6% were women and 49.4% were men. The average age of the participants was 29 years, the minimum age was 15 years and the maximum was 64 years. From the total of participants 83.4% have visited the Xcaret park, meanwhile the 16.6% has not visited the park. From the 83.4% that has visited the park, the 43.8% has visited it only once a year, the 26.3% has visited it twice and the 13.3% has visited it more than three times in a year. The joint analysis was carried out in two different stages, the first consisted on an octagonal matrix, that is a sub group of all the possible combinations that still allows the stimulation of the partial values for all the principal effects. The final number of all the remaining profiles from all the possible combinations of levels raises a lot to allow the participants to be able to classify o grade all of them in a way that it has a meaning like it is shown on Table 1.
The second part consisted on interviewing the 309 residents about the profiles given from the octagonal matrix where the results with higher values of utility show more preference, meaning that residents prefer to make water activities (.166), taste international food (.193) and watch the fauna (.063). The joint analysis also showed important values, relative measure of each denominated factor or importance points. Values are measured using the utility range for each factor separated and dividing it with the sum of the utility ranges of all the factors. For which, the values show percentages and have the property of adding up 100, like it is shown on Table 2.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 391 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Tabla 1: Octagonal Matrix Profiles Octagonal Matrix Profiles Attend artistic and cultural activities - Taste international Food - Enjoy the Flora Attend artistic and cultural activities - Taste international Food - Enjoy the Flora Attend artistic and cultural activities –taste food in the snack – Enjoy the Flora Attend artistic and cultural activities – taste food in the snack – Enjoy the Fauna Attend artistic and cultural activities – Taste Mexican regional food – Enjoy the Flora Take part in water activities- Taste international Food - Enjoy the Fauna Take part in water activities - Taste international Food - Enjoy the Flora Take part in water activities – taste food in the snack – Enjoy the Flora Take part in water activities – taste food in the snack – Enjoy the Fauna Take part in water activities – Taste Mexican regional food – Enjoy the Flora Take part in water activities – Taste Mexican regional food – Enjoy the Fauna This table shows the eleven octagonal matrix obtained through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The interview consisted on the interviewed putting in order from the 1to 11 the profiles marked on the table, one being the highest preference and 11 the lowest preference.
Table 2: Importance Values
CONCLUSIONThe park is one of the main attractions of the State of Quintana Roo, in which several diverse activities for adventure and green tourism can be done, like water activities, artistic, cultural and ecological activities, etc. In which to be able to determine the variables from the study these activities were considered, where eleven types of profiles that the consumer can choose outstood, which were obtained from the octagonal matrix. Something important about the analysis is that the 80% of the people interviewed have visited the park, what gives a more solid opinion about the different profile of services offered by Xcaret. The obtained results show that the clients prefer the following aspects: a) water activities, it is the main aspect of the park and the study shows that 26% feel attracted in taking part on these activities; b) Restaurants, specially international food that the food establishments offer and beverages the park offers, this point is a decisive one do the client acquires the service, this inference is backed up with the results obtained where it can be seen that 49% of the participants chose it as a main aspect; and c) Natural attractions, essentially related to the fauna, from this aspect we can deduct that it is important for the client due to the fact that there is a constant worry from their part to look after and preserve nature (taking into consideration that the participants are residents). Knowing the ideal combination of attributes marketing placement or product or service placement can be done, which it will encourage the organization to evaluate how to increase those qualified attributes with a greater percentage to keep and exceed the client’s expectation.
REFERENCESBANCOMEXT (2013). Turismo motor de crecimiento económico. Recuperado de http:// www.bancomext.gob.mx/Bancomext/getDownload?id=1772 Hair,J., Bush, R., y Ortinau, D. (2004). Investigación de Mercados. México: Mc Graw Hill Hoyer, W. y MacInnis, D. (2010). Comportamiento del Consumidor. Madrid: Cengage Learning Editors.C.
Kotler,P. y Armstrong, G. (2003). Fundamentos de Marketing. México. Prentice Hall.
Lovelock, J. (2004). Administración de Servicios. México: Perason.
Malhotra, N. (2008). Investigación de Mercados. México: Prentice Hall Xcaret. (2015). Acerca de Xcaret. Recuperado en www. xcaret.com.mx.
Walker, J., Boyd, J., Mullins, J. y Larréché, J. (2002). Marketing Estratégico. México: McGraw Hill.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 393 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1
FACTORS AFFECTING ADOPTION OF DIGITAL
BUSINESS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF SMES IN
GREATER WESTERN SYDNEY (GWS) AUSTRALIAQiuyan Fan, Western Sydney University, Australia
Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) are a significant part of the Australian economy. Understanding how SMEs can effectively adopt digital strategies to facilitate their growth will have positive implications for the national economy. Research has found that SMEs with a high level of digital engagement are more profitable, survive longer and grow larger (Deloitte Access Economics, 2013). However, a recent research survey shows only 16% of Australian SMEs with a high level of digital engagement and the vast majority of SMEs are not fully engaging with digital strategies (Deloitte Access Economics, 2013). Small businesses are at risk of missing opportunities that the digital economy opens up. While there are considerable studies on small business going online in the research literature, few studies have focused on the adoption of digital business in Greater Western Sydney (GWS). This paper attempts to address this lack by examining the level of digital engagement in SMEs in GWS using a qualitative approach. This research analyses and identifies factors affecting adoption of digital business in SMEs. The findings of this research suggest that the current state of local digital businesses in GWS can be best viewed as little more than using emails or providing basic information and services online. The factors affecting digital business adoption include lack of understanding of relevance of digital business to their organisations, absence of digital strategies, lack of skills and perceived cost and risk of change. Most local small businesses in GWS appear to be slow to advance their efforts to engage in the digital economy. This research recommends that SMEs in GWS need a proactive approach to developing effective digital strategies.
JEL: O32 KEYWORDS: SME, Digital Business
INTRODUCTIONSmall and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) are a significant part of the Australian economy as they make up the majority of Australian businesses. In Australia the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) defines the SMEs business category by the number of full-time employees. This definition includes: micro enterprise have 1-4 employees, small enterprises have 5-19 employees, and medium enterprises have 20-200 employees (CSIRO 2008). As of 2014 there are over 2 million active SMEs with a contribution of about 48% to national economy. SMEs play a vital role in the Australian economy because they are employing 70% of the Australian workforce and remain the key players in making the Australian economy more competitive in the global marketplace (Kapurubandara, Hol & Ginige 2010). Understanding how SMEs can effectively adopt digital strategies to facilitate their growth will have positive implications for the national economy. Research has found that SMEs with a high level of digital engagement are more profitable, survive longer and grow larger (Deloitte Access Economics, 2013).
However, a recent research survey shows only 16% of Australian SMEs with a high level of digital engagement and the vast majority of SMEs are not fully engaging with digital strategies (Deloitte Access Economics, 2013). Small businesses are at risk of missing opportunities that the digital economy opens up.
While there are considerable studies on small business going online in the research literature, few studies have focused on the adoption of digital business in Greater Western Sydney (GWS). This paper aims to GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 394 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 address this lack by analysing and identifying the factors affecting adoption of digital business in SMEs in GWS using a qualitative approach. For the purpose of this research, digital business is defined as the use of digital technologies to enable major business improvements such as enhancing customer experience, streamlining operations or creating new business models (Chaffey, 2015). Digital business is an opportunity that no organisation regardless of size should ignore. It is crucially important for small businesses to understand the potential and impact of advanced digital business as digitally engaged businesses are more likely to grow and remain competitive in the future.
There have been a number of studies concerned with SMEs digital business adoption (Rosli & Noor Azizi 2009; Damaskopoulos & Evgeniou 2003; Drew 2003; Pearson & Grandon 2005; Jeona, Han & Lee 2006;
Molla, Heeks & Balcells 2006; Al-Qirim 2006; Johnston & Wright 2004; Saffu, Walker & Hinson 2008).
These studies showed how different factors affect digital adoption amongst SMEs in different settings.