WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 48 | 49 || 51 | 52 |   ...   | 156 |

«VOLUM E 1 1, N UM B E R 1 I S SN 2 1 6 8 - 0 6 1 2 F L ASH DR I V E I S SN 1 9 4 1 - 9 5 8 9 ON L I N E T h e In s t it ut e f o r Bu s i n e s s an ...»

-- [ Page 50 ] --

As a complementary technique to the discriminative analysis, the logistic regression is used, expecting that this regression will help to validate the previous results and will offer greater information. Using these methods, the information will be detailed but without being redundant. Because the proposed model will be the most complete and will allow differentiating between innovating companies from which are not.

METHODOLOGY

The database used in this analysis is the Survey on Research and Development, Technology, Linking and Innovation in Mexico, made by the Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Mexico (CONACYT) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI). The objective of this survey was to collect data of the resources, the activities, the attitudes and the results associated with the generation, the acquisition and the development of technology in Mexico. The inquired population was constituted by the establishments and the institutions of the public administration sectors, superior education, organizations without profit aims and the productive sector, in particular the manufacturing one, due to the fact that this sector is the most dynamic in technology incorporation within the machinery and the equipment.

The statistic formulation of the sampling is probabilistic so that the data can be extended to the population.

The population was obtained from lists of the Economic Census of 2010, directories of firms affiliated to entrepreneurial organizations such as Camara de la Industria de la Transformacion (CANACINTRA), GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 232 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 CONACYT and the Secretary of Economic Development in Mexico. A simple stratified sampling was made by size of company and sector of economic activity. The sample was selected independently for each sector. The establishments entered with certainty were the ones with 250 employees or who had received allowance from CONACYT in Mexico for research projects in cooperation with some university or public investigation center. The multipurpose orientation of the survey forces to make a sampling sufficiently big to calculate all the variables of interest, so that the size was calculated based in the main variable: the spending in R&D.

The calculated size differs in the cases of establishments that during the data collection were not situated, they were in strike or were broken or suspended its operations. With an answer rate of 90,3% 398 questionnaires were answered. The sector distribution of the sample is represented in Table 1. The data were collected from June to September of 2010. First the questionnaires were delivered to the establishments for their answer, the also received a guide with instructions. In a second visit the questionnaires were collected and, just in case, the informers were helped to answer it correctly. The capture and tabulation of the data was made by the INEGI, this institution gave an analyzed database to the CONACYT. The information was processed with the statistic software SPSS 10/12.0. For the managing of

the data the following models were established:

Discriminative Analysis to examine the characteristics that differentiate an innovating company from a non-innovating one and Analysis of logistic regression, to support the previous one.

RESULTS

Descriptive Analisis When using the subjective definition of innovating behavior, 26,6% of the companies described themselves like innovators; whereas with the objective definition the percentage happens to be 55.3%. These numbers show that firms underestimate their activities associated with innovating behavior. Discriminative Analysis is a multivariable quantitative method, which takes a qualitative variable as dependent; and one or more quantitative variables as independent ones. The results are lineal functions called discriminants, which allow classifying the individuals in one of the categories established by the values of the dependent variable.

In this case, from a set of variables that tries to gather the characteristics of the company (structure, behavior and performance) the companies are classified in innovating and non-innovating companies. Two discriminating analysis were made, one takes the innovative behavior as the dependent variable according to the subjective answer of the surveyed company and another that defines the groups based on proposed objective criteria. The rate of classification found with the first criteria (subjective nature) was 75.4%, while with the second criteria (objective nature), was 77.1%. These results confirm that the innovative behavior objectively defined improves the empiric classification, this is, increases the rate of correct answers when the desire is to distinguish an innovative company from other that is not. The quantitative variables with major discriminative power are both the percentage of sales dedicated to machinery purchase,

as well as, the percentage of technology acquired abroad. The proposed discriminant model is:

D= 0.035 (OCDE) – 0.26 (Maq99) -0.12 (Tec_Ex99) + 0.658 (Camb_Org) + 1159 (ID_Ing) + 0.728(Apoyopub) - 3918

When this equation is applied to the centroids of the groups several negative values are obtained for the innovative companies and positives for the non innovative companies. So, the negatives quantitative variables are associated with the innovative behavior. By means of this discriminative equation it is observed that for each unit that increases the percentage of sales dedicated to the purchase of machinery and equipment, the discriminative function (equation) decreases 0.26. When the percentage of the GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 233 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 technology purchased abroad modifies by a unit, the discriminative function will do it negatively in 0.12.





So, the bigger the effort to acquire technology of a company and as the firm increases its technological stock from abroad, there will be more probability the company is in fact innovative.

With regard to the rest of the variables (Camb_Org, ID_Ing and Apoyopub), the bigger values they take, the more possible will be that the company is in fact non innovative. It is worth saying that the way the codification was made, influences the interpretation. The value of “one” was assigned to the presence of the attribute and the value of “two” was assigned to the absence. So, the top values refer to the absence of the attribute: lack of organizational change, lack of formal units of R&D and engineering, lack of government aid. The absence of this attributes is associated with the non innovation. The activity sector (OCDE) is a nominal variable with values that do not have an ordinal logic, so is not useful in the equation to get the truly membership to a group. This variable, along with others of qualitative type, will be also explored in the logistical analysis to prove its influence. These results allow rejecting a group of variables that were though that could have any discriminative power among the studied companies; between them

the following ones are emphasized: Of structural type:

Size (sales as well as employees) Foreign participation in the equity of the firm.

Participation in foreign markets.

Grade of specialization in its products, and Age of the company.

Of technology behavior:

Number of engineers working in the company.

Years of Experience in the engineering department.

Of competitive performance:

Growth Rate of sales.

Growth Rate of hiring.

With this analysis is possible to classify 77.1% of the total number of companies, of which 75.5% are innovative and 79.2% are not. In the Table 2, it is also shown the results of the classification made with the technical of cross validation, this is, one case is left outside and every case is classified using the discriminative functions derived from all of the other cases.

Logistic Regression

The logistic regression is a multivariable technique with the objective of classifying the individuals in one of the two groups established by the dependent variable. Once it is known the model, an individual might be classified, in a probabilistic form, in one of the answer groups when the value of the explicative variables is known, but not the kind of them. In this case, according to the logistic regression the variables associated

with the innovative behavior are, by associative power:

Acquisition of machinery.

The existence of a formal unit of engineering or development.

The possibility of public aid.

The introduction of changes in the organization of work.

The acquisition of machinery and equipment abroad.

The subsidiary nature of the company.

GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 234 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Y= 0.089 + 5837 (Adquima) + 4356 (ID_Ing) + 2428 (Apoyopub) + 2291 (Camb_Org) + 1959 (TIAE) + 2.76 (Subsidia)

Where:

Adquima is the condition of having acquired or not machinery and equipment between 1999 and 2002.

Camb_Org is the condition of having done an organizational change.

ID_Ing is the condition of having a formal unit of investigation and development or engineering.

Apoyopub is the condition of having received any public aid.

TIAE is the condition of having acquired technology in machinery or equipment abroad.

Subsidia is the condition of been or not a subsidiary company.

The previous equation can be interpreted using an example. If two companies with similar characteristics, practically equal, in its position with respect to the purchase of machinery, organizational change and public support, the fact that one had a department to the investigation and the development or enginery and other no, multiply by 4 356 the probability that the first company was innovative. Then the fact that a company has these attributes increases the probability of which it presents an innovating behavior. On the other hand, the variables that cannot be used as a criteria to explain the innovating behavior between the studied companies are localization, the economic activity sector, the size, the foreign capital, the diversification of the product portfolio, the rank of the amount of sales, the technological level of the economical sector, the use of e-mail, the source of the machinery and equipment supplier (intra-enterprise and national), and the origin of the source of provision of unreal goods and the expansion of the employment and the sales.

CONCLUSIONS

From the analyzed models and variables of the production system in Mexico, it is concluded that firms tend to underestimate the activities and the results that can be associated to an innovating behavior. In particular, the condition of having and employing complex machinery and equipment is not valued; as a result an infra-valuation emerges. Neither the structural characteristics nor the competitive performance help to explain the innovating behavior of the studied companies. Evidently, the innovators distinguish themselves for having formalized their activities of engineering or R&D, having conducted changes in work organization during period 2008-2010 and having obtained some governmental support. The previous claim had been verified empirically with two tools of multivariant analysis. The main activity associated to innovation is R&D. As many authors [9] have suggested, this is not the only source of innovation, but this relationship seems irreplaceable due to the necessity of new technology incorporation.[5] On the other hand, the technological learning has been associated to the production routine [7] that is why to have formalized the activity of engineering facilitates the codification of the knowledge; when providing an organizational support to the accumulation of technological capital in the companies. This favors the incorporation of new knowledge and solutions, generated in the solution of problems derived from the productive task and the development of technical abilities that reduce the difficulties attaché to the transference, adoption and adaptation of new technology.

The exigencies of the new competitive environment, in particular the implantation of transnational companies in the national markets and the necessity to participate direct or indirectly in networks of global production have pressured intensively. In response the companies have carried out organizational changes that allow them increase the quality and the quantity of their production, as to adopt shorter delivery times.

This condition of fast adaptation to changes in turbulent surroundings has been called adjustment or fitness.[8] Then, since the companies that had made organizational changes have, more probability of being GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 235 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 innovating, we can say that those that present capacity from adjustment to the surroundings can be grouped in the group of the innovators.

In the survey, there are not indicators that measures techno-productive and social relations in the companies.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 48 | 49 || 51 | 52 |   ...   | 156 |


Similar works:

«About   CORPORATE MEETINGS AND INCENTIVES FOUR UNIQUE OFF-SITE DESTINATIONS Costa Rica l St. Lucia l Jamaica l Panama Table of Contents About Us 3 Rainforest Adventures Costa Rica 4 Rainforest Adventures Panama 24 Rainforest Adventures Jamaica 45 Rainforest Adventures St. Lucia 48 About Si nce the inception of our first project in Costa Rica in 1994, our principal mission has been to promote environmental awareness while conserving endangered national resources through innovative educational...»

«Dr. Ulrich Schenck Reviewing local Policies of the past decades and Analyzing current Flows of EU migrants This publication has been produced with financial support from the European Union’s Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme. The information and views set out in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission. The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication. Neither the...»

«Office of Legislative Research Research Report October 26, 2015 2015-R-0234 TERRITORIAL RATING IN AUTO INSURANCE By: Alex Reger, Legislative Analyst II ISSUE TERRITORIAL RATING Describe how auto insurers in Connecticut use territory Many insurers use territorial rating (i.e., where a car is as a rating factor when determining risk and premiums primarily garaged) as a for private, non-fleet auto insurance (i.e., auto predictor of risk. As a result, insurance purchased for personal, noncommercial...»

«Interview with GEORGE FRASIER Texas Ranger, Retired ©2008, Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum Project: Texas Rangers Interview Conducted at the Coleman Church of the Nazarene Coleman, Texas Thursday —September 25, 2008 Interviewed By: Nancy Ray and Eddie Ray Longview, Texas Present at Interview: George Frasier, Nancy Ray and Eddie Ray This Texas Ranger Hall of Fame E-Book™ is copyrighted 2008, by the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum. All Rights Reserved. For information contact...»

«Hagen M. Krämer1 September 2015 Inequality dynamics with different saving ratios A note on Piketty’s condition for increasing wealth concentration Abstract Certain additional conditions must hold, if Thomas Piketty‘s formula “ ” is to result in a rising unequal wealth and income distribution. The dynamics of wealth inequality in this paper depend on two main conditions: First, wealthy households must have a higher saving ratio than poor households. Second, depending on certain...»

«WORDS THAT SHAKESPEARE ONLY USED ONCE HAPAXES IN SHAKESPEARE AND TEN LETTERS OF HENRY NEVILLE A hapax legomenon is a word which an author only uses once. Hapax legomenon is a transliteration of Greek ἅπαξ λεγόµενον, meaning “something said only once”1. The plural is hapax legomena or hapaxes. In 1896 W. P. Workman counted such words in Shakespeare. I offer this paper as further evidence that Sir Henry Neville was the hidden poet using William Shakespeare as a pseudonym/front...»

«Diagnóstico del Municipio de Posoltega Asentamientos humanos e infraestructuras 2.3-. Asentamientos Humanos e Infraestructuras 2.3.1-. Población Los datos encontrados en la bibliografía sobre la evolución de la población en Posoltega son bastante contradictorios a partir del Huracán Mitch. Lo que si puede percibirse claramente en el gráfico (dónde se representan aquellos datos que inspiran una mayor confianza) es el importante descenso de población que se produjo como consecuencia del...»

«Interim Report: Phase 1 Development of a New Methodology to Characterize Truck Body Types along California Freeways Contract Number: 11-316 Principal Investigator: Stephen G. Ritchie, Ph.D.Prepared for: California Air Resources Board Prepared by: Stephen G. Ritchie, Ph.D. Director, Institute of Transportation Studies Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California, Irvine, 92697-3600 March 20, 2013 Disclaimer: The statements and conclusions in this report...»

«Consumer Guidelines for Identifying, Selecting, and Evaluating Behavior Analysts Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Special Interest Group (SIG) of the Association for Behavior Analysis Original Version Adopted May 23, 1998 1st Revision Adopted September 15, 2004 2nd Revision Adopted May 22, 2007 Funding generously provided by: The New Jersey Center for Outreach & Services for the Autism Community 1450 Parkside Ave., Suite 22 Ewing, NJ 08638 1.800.4.AUTISM (in NJ)...»

«Norteamérica. Revista Académica del CISANUNAM ISSN: 1870-3550 namerica@servidor.unam.mx Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte México DÍAZ DE LA SERNA, IGNACIO Los primeros tratados internacionales estadunidenses Norteamérica. Revista Académica del CISAN-UNAM, vol. 3, núm. 1, enero-junio, 2008, pp. 155-194 Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte Distrito Federal, México Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=193715166006 Cómo citar el artículo...»

«2011 Halal Advocates of America Halal Advocates of America 1/1/2011 Contents About The Advocates Building Integrity and Consumer Trust in Halal The Concept of the Halal Advocate Focusing on the Consumer The Strategic Focus in America Education and Awareness Certification and Verification Program (HFSAA) Promoting Inclusivity and Universal Standards Advocate-Based Chapter Model Growing Knowledge Share Experiences Industry Alliance Building Advocate Events Audit Specialty A Few Notable Advocates...»

«FCE Econografos Nº 54 Febrero 2014 KEYNES TENÍA RAZÓN. LECCIONES NO APRENDIDAS Y DESAFÍOS POR AFRONTAR KEYNES WAS RIGHT. NOT LEARNED LESSONS, AND CHALLENGES TO FACE Jairo Alexander Neira Sánchez ¡Escribe y publica la FCE te apoya! Jairo Alexander Neira Sánchez KEYNES TENÍA RAZÓN. LECCIONES NO APRENDIDAS Y DESAFÍOS POR AFRONTAR Jairo Alexander Neira Sánchez Resumen: Las crisis financieras en Estados Unidos y Europa han vuelto a poner sobre el debate la pertinencia y veracidad de los...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.