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GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 223 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Impacts On Employment: The proponents of foreign capital inflows have made emphasis on its ability to increase in employment. According to them, it brings about new investment opportunities and enhances the employment capacity through the use of new technological developments both quantitatively and qualitatively. Increased foreign direct investment reveals leads to the increased demand for labour in the national labour market (Cinko,2009). With Turkey’s increasing population and growing local market and the structure of a free market economy, it is a country with a considerable amount of potential for attracting foreign direct investment. In fact after the year 2000, foreign direct investment has significantly increased compared to the prior years and the increases in foreign direct investment growth figures were also accompanied by economic growth. However, despite these developments, unemployment has remained high. According to research, foreign direct investments do not appear to have a significant impact on employment in Turkey. Empirical studies on Turkey revealed that a significant employment generator effect of foreign direct investment flows to Turkey is usually limited to the service sub-sectors (finance, communication-transportation).The results found in similar studies also revealed that foreign direct investment do not influence employment. In this context, the results indicate two different points. Firstly, Turkey's potential for attracting foreign direct investment, requires to be shifted to other areas, such as tourism or mining appears as a more appropriate option. Secondly, technology transfer rather than direct employment of foreign investments, with exports and prices being at the forefront could be considered as an alternative policy tool.

CONCLUSION

To promote the development of many countries in the world, to improve the welfare of the country, as well as developing advanced technology countries should take advantage of foreign capital. Developing countries with insufficient capital resources need to attract foreign capital into the country to aid development. Financial globalization which has aided the ease foreign investment capital flows as well as changing foreign markets has began to have different effects on a country’s economy. Capital movements within the European Union are also subject to change. Investors may not find it to be beneficial to invest in countries with limited natural resources. Besides, it is a fact that of foreign capital contributes to the income tax revenue of a country. For Turkey foreign direct investment can be beneficial in combating the current account deficit and improve competitiveness with other countries. In conclusion, the increase of direct foreign investments has started to gain importance in Turkey especially in the banking sector and the financial services sector with diversity provided primarily with information and communication technologies being at the forefront. In addition, there are positive effects on economic growth with an increase of foreign capital. Furthermore, foreign capital into the country of has also had positive effects on the current account deficit. However they do not have any direct effect on the employment.

REFERENCES

Akbulut Mustafa, 2009: Dogrudan Sermaye Yatirimlari: Buyume ve Istihdam Iliskisi, K. M. U. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, s.29.

Akar Gokhan, 2010: Dolaysiz Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlarinin Sektorel Kompozisyonunun Ekonomik Buyumeye Etkisi, K. M. U. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, s.4.

Aydemir Cahid v.d., 2012: Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirimlarin Dunya'daki ve Turkiye'deki Gelisimi”, Kocaeli Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 23, 69 – 104.

Bayraktar Fulya, 2003: Dunyada ve Turkiye de Dogrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımları” Turkiye Kalkinma Bankasi AŞ. Genel Arastirmalar Yayıni, s. 6 GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 224 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Çeken Hüseyin, 2002: Avrupa Birliginde Dogrudan Yabanci Sermaye Hareketleri ve Turkiye, Balikesir Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi, Cilt:5 Sayı:8, s.21-37.

Cinko Levent, 2009: Dogrudan Yabanci Sermaye Hareketlerinin Makroekonomik Etkileri, Marmara Universitesi IIBF Dergisi, Cilt:26, Sayı:1., s.117-131.

Devlet Planlama Teskilatı Mustesarligi, 2004: Türkiye’nin Uyeliginin AB’ ye Muhtemel Etkileri.

Isayev Elmin, 2013: Bolgesel Entegrasyonlarin Basarı Durumu Yonunden AB` nin Degerlendirilmesi Avrasya Strateji Dergisi, Cilt: 2, Sayı: 2, s. 193-222.

Kar Muhsin and Tatlisoz Fatma, 2008: Turkiye'de Dogrudan Yabanci Sermaye Hareketlerini Belirleyen Faktorlerin Ekonomik Analizi, KMU İİBF Dergisi Yıl:10 Sayı:14, s. 6-23.

Karatas Muhammed, 2007: Turkiye ve Avrupa Birligi Ulkelerinde Devlet Yardimlari”, Anadolu Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Sayı:1, s.367-390.

Karluk Ridvan, 2001: Turkiye’de Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlarinin Ekonomik Buyumeye Katkisi, TCMB Yayıni, s. 100.

Koyuncu Fatma Turan, 2010: Turkiye'de Secilmis Makroekonomik Degiskenlerin Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirimlar Uzerindeki Etkisinin Yapisal Var Analizi 1990-2009 Donemi, Ekonomi Bilimleri Dergisi, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, s. 117-131.





Kutlu Erol and Hacikoylu Canatay, 2007: Avrupa Birligi'ne Tam Uyelik Surecinde Turkiye ve Avrupa Birligi Ulkelerinde Devlet Yardimlari”, Anadolu Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Sayı:1, s.367-390.

Saray M. Ozan, 2011: Dogrudan yabanci yatirimlar Istihdam Iliskisi: Turkiye Ornegi, Maliye Dergisi, Sayı:161, s. 381-403 Turan Zubeyir, 2010: Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirimlarin Ulkemiz Ekonomisine Etkileri ve Katkıları, Mevzuat Dergisi, Vol: 149.

Mor Hasan, 2010: Avrupa Birligi Butunlesme Sureci ve Sorunlari, Gazi Universitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi Cilt: XIV, Y.,s.499-541.

ONER Akif, 2009: Avrupa Birligine Tam Üyeliğin Eşiğinde Türkiye, Yönetim ve Ekonomi Dergisi, Cilt:

16, Sayı: 1, s.89-105.

Turkiye Odalar ve Borsalar Birligi, 2012: Avrupa Birligi ve Turkiye-Avrupa Birligi Iliskileri, s. 4.

BIOGRAPHY

Hasan Bulent Kantarci is an Associate Professor at the Kocaeli University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, department of economics, in Turkey. He teaches public finance and tax law. He graduated from Uludag University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. In 1989, he learned German at the Goethe Institute in Vienna. He researched his master's degree thesis at the University of Vienna and University of Cologne in 1990-1991. And he started his doctorate at the University of Berlin Humboldt University 1992-1993, continued at the Vienna University of Economics and Business in 1993and completed at Uludag University. For post-doctoral research, in 1997, he went to the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Then, he taught public finance and tax law at the Gaziosmanpasa University in Turkey. In 2000 and 2001, he visited St John’s University in New York. His research area was public finance and tax law. He attended many conferences in New York, in Detroit, in Orlando, in GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 225 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 London, in Portugal, in Riyadh, in Dubai, in Biskek, in Istanbul, etc. He can be reached at Kocaeli University, Umuttepe Campus, Department of Economics, 41000 Izmit-Kocaeli / Turkey.

Mustafa Ali Sanliturk is studied department of the public administration at the Anadolu University. He received his Master’s Degree in Istanbul, at the Gelisim University in the department of business in2015.

He is woking at the Kocaeli University as a researcher.

GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 226 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1

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This study presents the taxonomy of innovation types based on the actor and the learning types. The activities of inventors have today been extended to collaborative and networked innovation. This study extends them to crowd innovation, which is a new term based on crowdsourcing. The study illustrates open innovation alliances and communities in higher education. The study also presents empirical evidence on the European strategic innovation alliance and a Finnish innovation community that has an electronic platform that presents and evaluates ideas and then forward them for practice JEL: 034 KEYWORDS: Innovation Alliances, Innovation Communities, Crowdsourcing, Research and Development, Learning, Higher Education

INTRODUCTION

The importance of inventors has been reduced because today’s complex structures of e business organizations and society have taught people to innovate. Innovation is too important to be left only in the hands of inventors. Higher education institutions have started to follow the lead of business companies, where many new formats such as innovation alliances and communities have become popular. Single scholars in research universities generate new ideas and publish their results in journals. Typically doctoral dissertations and many articles are written alone. It is important for these research scholars that they are the first presenter of their new knowledge. The traditional process takes time, however, and is inefficient, because only few people outside the institution will read the articles and utilize the research results. The closed process of research and development in higher education institutions is simply now too slow to produce competitive advantage for business companies. The traditional approach of innovation, however, can be improved by using open innovation alliances and communities in higher education.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Open Innovations Collaborative value creation where the ideas and innovative efforts flow inside-out and outside-in is called “open innovation” (Chesbrough, 2003). This open innovation process generally includes inbound and outbound knowledge flows and combined processes (Gianiodis et al., 2010, and Lichtenthaler, 2011). This open networked co-innovation is a form of adding external actor involvement to innovation, where actors from a diverse backgrounds collectively solve complex problems using a virtual network (von Raesfeld et al., 2012, and Song et al., 2013). The open innovation process is a value chain, using an innovation ecosystem where various partners combine their contributions into value creating solutions. Collaboration is not restricted just to higher education institutions; it also reaches research institutes, business companies, and the public sector. The project connects solution seekers with collaborating solution providers. Nobody knows everything about a collaborative research and development project, but everyone can contribute to the project in different ways.

GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 227 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Open Innovation Alliances Open innovation alliances are coalitions constructed between two or more parties to promote innovations.

Open innovation alliances have a number of benefits, including 1) pooling complementary skills, 2) accessing external knowledge, 3) accelerating product development (Pittaway et al., 2004), and 4) offering early and closer customer interaction in product development (Corso et al., 2001). There is extensive literature available on the positive contribution networks can make to innovation and returns (Burt, 2005, Faems et al., 2005, Perks and Jeffery, 2006, and Reuer and Koza, 2000).

Innovation pedagogy was developed for higher education institutions and their networks, so that lecturebased education could be extended to collaborative and networked learning (Kettunen, 2011, Kantola and Kettunen, 2012, and Kettunen et al., 2013). Typically multidisciplinary research and development projects respond to the development needs of the environment. These projects are integrated into education to create more and better capabilities for students and staff to create collaborative and networked innovations for companies and the public sector. Innovation pedagogy is extended in this study so as to create crowd innovations based on the concept of crowdsourcing with the larger public.

Open Innovation Communities

Innovation communities are nodes that consist of firms that are interconnected by information transfer links.

These links may involve face-to-face, electronic, or other types of communication (von Hippel, 2005).

Innovation communities have users as customers and/or contributors. Typically, users join together on a web-based platform and this joining increases the speed and effectiveness with which users and other contributors can present, evaluate, and diffuse their innovations. Crowdsourcing attracts interested and motivated people to produce solutions that are superior to the ideas offered by individual genius.

Under the right circumstances, a crowd is able to present a solution that is better than the ideas of a single scientific researcher. The wisdom of crowds is not derived from averaging their solutions, but rather a user of crowdsourcing must find and identify those situations where mediocrity is excellence and the offered solutions can be aggregated in the same way that markets and intelligent voting systems aggregate them.

The conditions needed for collective wisdom are 1) diversity of opinion, 2) independence, 3) decentralization, and 4) aggregation of the crowd (Surowiecki, 2004). Crowdsourcing is a distributed problem-solving model that is not necessarily an open-source practice in all business companies. Higher education institutions are more open to the concept because they primarily publish the results of research and development of their members.

Types of Innovations



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