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GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 158 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1
RECOGNIZING THE CAPACITY OF A
MULTINATIONAL ORGANIZATION TO REPATRIATE
THE EXPATRIATE: A PARADIGMATIC LENSBrenda Shore, University of Maryland University College
Expatriates are an important resource for multinational corporations (MNC). Unfortunately, repatriation is not always successful with almost 40% of these employees leaving the firm within two years of coming home. The employee’s resignation translates to a loss to the organization of both the financial investment made in the employee and the skills and experience that the employee developed while in the expatriate assignment. Efforts are made by human resource departments to assist the expatriate’s return to the home organization. The high turnover rate, however, emphasizes that more is needed to retain the talent of the expatriate and protect the investment made by the organization. It is time for a new way of doing business, and that includes recognizing the role that the leadership of the MNC has in repatriating the expatriate. To ground the research, a rapid systematic review is conducted that involves examining both theoretical and empirical on repatriation. Using Perlmutter’s EPRG Model (1969) and Ernst and Chrobot-Mason’s boundary spanning leadership model (2010), a paradigmatic lens for multinational organizations to examine their capacity to repatriate the expatriate is developed. An analysis of each model individually, followed by an integration of concepts, provide a mechanism to elevate the subject of repatriation from a pedestrian list of action items to a higher-order analysis of the organization. This author proposes that for repatriation to work, leaders must have a geocentric attitude and embrace the need to develop collaboration between groups. The advantage of this approach is the ability to ascertain where leadership is on the continuum and identify what it will take to improve the probability of successfully repatriating the expatriate. The article concludes with implications for future research for scholars and management practice for practitioners.
JEL: M12, M16 KEYWORDS: Repatriate, Multinational Corporation, EPRG Model, Boundary Spanning GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 159 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1
The progress of the society of knowledge and of the information technologies has significantly influence in education and the form which the teaching-learning systems acquire. Accordingly, the intention is not only an amendment of the teacher-pupil relationship placing at the classroom centre stage the learning and the interplay among students, but also the collaborative engagement of the teacher as agent of change.Another axis of the educational change comes from the educative system approach throughout ICT´s; the command of computer knowledge by teachers is a must for them a) to equate their pupil´s skills and b) to implement it into teaching strategies. Today, items such as e-mails and web (Internet) are essential tools for the modern development of education. The cognitive systems known as dual, comprising an automatic system and another system – a slower and thinking one- allows the creation of an interface between the mode in which the brain processes the information and the mode in which the teaching-learning system uses the ICT´s to improve the pupil´s skills.
J.E.L. CLASSIFICATION: I21, I22
INTRODUCTIONThe scientific and technological progress of the last decades, mainly in the field of the ICT´s, mainly the ones linked to the ICT´s, means more and better opportunities to extend education, allowing a reduction of the time and distance problem through innovations; the latter covering also the teaching-learning systems.
As a result, the new methodologies of study can promote the “learning to learn” concept, understanding this latter as the tool needed to develop an autonomous knowledge, Each institution decides to integrate or not to the ICT´s, according to their infrastructure, interests or skills. This problem appears in the 21st century as a great digital gap (not yet corrected) in the educational environment. The problem tends to be enlarged since the year 2006 with the emergence of the “cloud computing”; the concept is orientated to the use of diverse applications and services for which it is necessary to have a PC with connection to Internet.
The technological progress of our century generate a projection for a virtual education, supported by digital means such as Internet, videoconferences, social networks, professional networks and online libraries, with a dynamic approach. So, the user –pupil or teacher – gains access to archives and programs stored in a indefinite site, even in other countries, which are not in his/her computer. Thence the origin of the term cloud. Currently many of the teachers of secondary and higher education have acquired their competence for cloud applications in training courses in recent years; however, they were not trained in this kind of training environment and for that reason a great ignorance exist about dozens of free educative applications available in Internet. In consideration of the classroom activities and according to the author Díaz Barriga (w/d), the possibility to obtain satisfactory results from the didactic situations to which people have been
faced was identified. And so, many times they have learned to learn, because:
They control their own learning process They recognize and appreciate what they do They appreciate the demands of the task and respond accordingly They plan and review their own achievements identifying hits and errors They employ appropriate strategies to analyze each situation GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 160 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 They value the attained achievements and correct they mistakes The legacy of the French psychologist Gabriel Tarde is used in the psychological analysis of this work.
Tarde´s research about the processes of cognition, decision and rationality were recovered in recent years by Latour & Lépinay (2008) who presented a theory on the mode in which people realize the cognition processes based in imitation and creation, the latter being unique to humans (López & Sánchez Criado, 2006; Nocera 2006; Denegri Coria w/o date). The analysis of the behavioral model of Tarde (Latour, 2008;
López & Sánchez Criado, 2006; Denegri Coria w/o date) has relation with the two systems model, named S1 and S2 by Stanovich & West (2000); this model is sustained by rationality models validated by means of justifications providing the necessary support (García Campos, 2008, 2009; Stanovich & Est, 2000, 2003;
Vieira Cano, 2008; Estrada Gallego, 2006 ). It is directly related to education, because it indicates the form by which human beings acquire signification, starting from rational processes, as a necessary step towards comprehension and acceptation of reality and knowledge. This work continues with the section on methodology, then develops the different epistemological positions. Finally complete with the discussions and the conclusion. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to interpret the difficulties encountered due to the advancement of information technology and new forms of education. The way to future research on the benefits and the problems caused by the use of new technologies and their impact on quality education and training of the individual is open.
According to the characteristics of a work of theoretical research, the methodological path used mainly is the collection of papers from psychologists who have worked on economic behavior and academic economics conducting research in behavioral economics, coupled to the classical theories the administration. It is essentially a descriptive work that tries to provide answers within the academic exploration within its own conceptual map of Latino culture to the concepts of learning organizations. The literature search was conducted in the field of prestigious academic journals Latin American universities in particular, by blind search technique, oriented keywords. While it is a qualitative research from the standpoint of the study of specific event, such events do not arise from the empyrean but are the product of observations of primitive work then developed through the filter of cultural vision and mental maps of the authors Latinos.
The behavioral model of Gabriel Tarde According to Denegri Coria (w/o date, p. 10) “Tarde claims that the social behavior is explained by means of the complementary concepts of imitation and invention”.
Imitation is the crucial phenomenon to explain the human relationships starting from the individuals. It is a kind of hypnotic state that leads individuals to repeat automatically the conduct previously developed by models. Imitation is the psychological procedure by which ideas are repeated and spread among the society;
it starts from internal states such as beliefs and desires”.
Imitation is interpreted as the situation that allows to the author Tarde to claim that social reality is a result of psychological states, resulting from the association of individuals, allowing the construction of a group psychological representation; then, the level of reality are the grouped individuals and the collective effect on the individual conscience (López Parra, 2008). Therefore, the group construction of the psychological reality imposes conditions to the group components into an attitudinal and sentimental reference frame, in which individual decisions are adopted. In contrast to Gabriel Tarde, Gustave Le Bon introduced the “collective mind” concept, claiming that when the individuals are part of a collective, psychological traits emerge that are absent in the subjects taken in an isolated mode; instead, Le Bon states that some psychological behavior exist and emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their reunion.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 161 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 The concept of invention is much more important for human development, because it allows the evolution starting from certain recognized situation (by means of imitation) to a new realization (invention) and so permits the individual progress at the knowledge level and the society progress. Meanwhile, Denegri Coria (w/o date) defines invention as any thinking or creation that arises from the combination of two or more ideas acquired previously by means of imitation and by contrasting and opposition between imitation (accepted idea) and the existing practices. It is a feature of individuals especially talented, that are followed (and copied) by the human mass. The society advances thanks to inventions and creations.
The idea on which Gabriel Tarde works has two well differentiated aspects, but simultaneously and perfectly related and complemented to explain the form in which the human beings incorporate concepts and ideas; concepts and ideas turns humans able to realize rapid decision making and to acquire and store new knowledge by means of imitation. Tarde states that imitation and repetition are the adequate instruments for the acquisition of abilities and skills by human beings, that then may be applied by means of creation - understood as the sum of two concepts already seized – that may only be available to those who possess a remarkable degree of cognition and reasoning. The model of behavior of Tarde implies
certain laws that may be applied to the education to explain, for example, that:
Imitation may explain either fashion or productive processes and cycles of teaching-learning The homo economicus is explained (in psychology) by the causes of desire and beliefs The knowledge consumer is a being made of desires to satisfy, according to a gradation of preferences.
Learning depends on the imitation concept.
Research is related to technological innovation, i.e. with invention.
The Dual Reasoning Model (Or: the Two Systems Model)
The dual theory of systems was developed in the field of cognitive psychology and captivated the attention of an important group of psychologists; it developed steadily since 1990 until today. This theory postulated two diverse processes of reasoning that coexist into the human brain, called S1 and S2 by Stanovich and West. For Evans (García Campos, 2008, p. 68 ) and Stanovich and West (2000, 2003), S1 contains processes shared only with animals, while S2 seems to be a system used exclusively by human beings at large. These authors assign to the S1 system a rapid response capability, great operative capability (computational capability) which enables immediate responses, including to complex reasoning problems; the drawback consist in the fact that the answers not always are correct. This system is deemed innate for human beings and archaic in terms of evolution (García Campos, 2008, 2009). Instead, S2 is a slower system of reasoning, but able to meet certain regulatory requirements leading to a more correct answer in terms of rationality;
moreover, this system has capacity – in some measure – to control the outputs of S1 and to inhibit them.
Stanovich and West (2003) stated that S1 is a compound of some processes that shared certain distinctive
characteristics, common but liable of identification, such as:
They are associative processes or processes experimental learning They are preceptual and language systems They are automated processes Into an ulterior paper García Campos stated a relationship between the dual theory of reasoning and the
concepts of justification and rationality. Justification is (for him) a compound of two essential axes: