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This research aims to study the perception of Inbound Tourist to Green Hotel or Friendly environment hotel and to study the level of tourist requirements in green hotel. The sample of this research was 200 inbound tourists in Bangkok, Thailand. The constructed instrument was a questionnaire and SPSS. The questionnaire is divided into five parts which are general information of inbound tourist, attitude and perception to sustainable tourism, public awareness, opinion to activity/service/ Green hotel operation and suggestion to hotel entrepreneurs. The study revealed that overall of all five main topics was “much’’ significant awareness to green hotel principal. Moreover, hotel business entrepreneur can utilize the basic research outcome to create differentiate of promoting and improving marketing strategy, apply green activity, or environment policy from inbound tourist requirement of lodging business to improve physical development and green hotel operation in order to be competitive advantages among hotel in Asean.
BIOGRAPHYMs. Kanyapilai Kunchornsirimongkon, International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, UThong Nok Road, Dusit, Bangkok, Thailand KEYWORDS—Tourist Perception, Green concept, Green Hotel
INTRODUCTIONTourism industry plays important role to Thailand especially in economic and social development.
Moreover, tourism and lodging business generate huge income to the country every year. Therefore, it’s very important to study and analyze all factors that impact to hotel and resort business such as environment and business operation in order to awareness to define the measure and efficiency improvement their business. (Hotel and Resort Business Analysis Journal 2010, Technology Thai-Japan Association 2013) Green Concept or friendly environment is taken interesting ideal worldwide which obviously see from increasing number of green product in market such as organic vegetable, green electrical product, high bridge car and green hotel.
Increasing numbers of natural disaster, green house effect, global warming, and animal extinction are the factors to change human consumption. Environment awareness trend impact to human behavior of “ To be part” to preserve and sustain environment for themselves and next generation. Regarding to human consumption behavior, once they change and want to preserve environment, it creates “demand” in markets. People are more conservative by using green product, energy saving, waste separation or 3 R concepts: Reduce Reuse Recycle. Therefore, if there is high demand of friendly environment consumer in the industry, the business responding should be conducted and facilitate consumers to be part of environment conservation. ( Hongsakul Mesnukul) Regarding to consumer behavior changing above, environment preserving concept affects to ways of consumptions of goods and services. If the entrepreneurs do not follow the trend of demanding, they probably lose their business opportunity.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 484 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 Therefore, the research of perception of inbound tourist to green hotel is focusing on how tourist awareness about Green hotel or knowledge, understanding, idea, ways of green hotel. This study will be benefits to lodging business entrepreneur in order to use the data to apply and plan in their business including marketing strategy to be competitive advantages. Green activities in hotel will assist entrepreneur to be success in business operation and sustainable.
Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: Difference of population feature bring differently opinion, activity expectation/ service/ and operation of green hotel Hypothesis2: Difference level of perception to tourism sustainability relevant to green activity expectation/ service and operation of green hotel Hypothesis3: Difference level of awareness and alertness to environment preservation trend relate to green activity expectation/ service and operation of green hotel
LITERATURE REVIEWConsumer Behavior Concept Seree Wongmontha ( 2546: 33) defined the consumer behavior that means to study the decision making process and action of customer which concern purchasing and using of products or activity related to buying and using of goods and service in order to response their need and consumer satisfy. There are the process of decision making before and after purchasing or its behavior of consumer for searching, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing products and service.
Ranee Amarinrat (2543: abstract) studied the factors that impact to customers satisfaction of hotel in Bangkok. The research revealed that the customer satisfy was “ much” degree from the service of the hotel. The satisfaction of service was different depended on personal characteristics of age, and education. The main factor to empower customer satisfaction was cleanliness of employee, environment, atmosphere and beauty of hotel.
Concept and Theory of Hotel and Green Hotel
Asian Green hotel standard is standard of Green Hotel in Asian member in which agreed to manage physical resources to preserve and maintain the building, well trained staff both providing services and promoting the participation of tourism officer and local people in community to conserve environment, job and local product which affects community development, sustainable and customers requirement responding.
The Green Leafs Association (Green Leaf Foundation) is another association to promote green. The Green Leaf Foudation has purposes to provide knowledge about lodging business to entrepreneur to understand ways of environment conservation and promotion including development hotel business in term of service efficiency and energy saving conforming to tourist demands. Tourists feel being a part of preserving environment with hotel in order to advertise being a part of hotel business, participating, caring, including hotel service in efficiency. (Green Leaf Foundation, 2012).
Regarding to study of Ayuso (Ayuso,2006) about idea and method, environment conservation has been used about to manage and operate 30 hotels (grounded theory) in Spain which covered Balearic and Cotalonia. The views of the executive agreed that tourism sustainable is to develop tourism product in which respect to natural resources. That means the least destroy natural as possible by preserving and competitive advantage in tourism market and benefit to economic in long term too. Moreover, the advantages of green and sustainable concept create the different and selling point to hotel industry as following.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 485 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1
Statement above can refer to be different and competitive advantage to hotel significantly.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSampling: 200 of Inbound Tourist in Bangkok area were sample group.
A research tools: Questionnaire has been used as a tool to collect data from 200 inbound tourists in Bangkok area.
Questionnaire Process Study on theory, principle and literature review Study the method how to produce questionnaire by checklist and rating scale which cover specific terms.
Checking questionnaire reliability of content and language from advisor in case of having comments in order to improve and edit.
After edited, questionnaire should be reviewed the with by expert in case of having comment in order to improve.
Questionnaire characteristic There are 4 parts of the questionnaires divided for inbound tourist.
Part1: General information of inbound tourist Part2: Attitude and perception degree to green hotel Part3: Public awareness to friendly environment trend Part4: Opinion to activity/service/ Green hotel operation Questionnaire Criteria Evaluation Information of questionnaire part 3 and 4 will use average score on opinion and satisfy of inbound tourist to Green Hotels in Bangkok by following criteria.
Class Interval = Highest score – lowest score/ number of class = 5-1/5= 0.8 As following criteria of transfer definition Average 4.20-5.00 means Opinion degree/ most satisfy Average 3.40-4.19 means Opinion degree/ much satisfy Average 2.60-3.39 means Opinion degree/ medium satisfy Average 1.80-2.59 means Opinion degree/ less satisfy Average 1.00-1.79 means Opinion degree/ least satisfy Data Collection After collecting questionnaire data, researcher has process by following.
1. Checking data and use only completed questionnaire and remove errors questionnaire.
2. Create code and key data in SPSS for Window 7 Version 19 Research statistic
Data analysis had used SPSS for Window 7 Version 19 that there were steps as following:
1. Reliability questionnaire test by using Coefficient Alpha and Cronbach GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 486 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1
2. Analyzing population characteristic was gender, age, status, nationality which will be defined as frequency and basic statistic for example, percentage and standard deviation.
Percentage Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Research Finding The perception of inbound tourist to green hotel or friendly environment hotel about Reuse in overall was “ much” significant. When studying into each element, it found that Reducing usage of energy, raw material and solid waste, including its use in activities that do not pose an added value was the most importance.
The expanding life usage, maintenance, repair and recycling to compensate for the changes and Improving process efficiency, activity together with an increase in operational productivity were medium awareness level equally.
Public awareness to friendly environmental trend-Reuse/ Recycle in overall was “ much” significant.When studying into each element, it found that Recovery of gas energy from discard material and solid waste, Installing treatment systems to reuse and recycle the resources, and Sorting of waste for reuse and recycling opportunities were “ much” awareness level.
Inbound tourist inquiry to green hotel can be applied for environment policy in hotel.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation-product in overall was “Much”. When studying elements of product/service, found that the cleanliness, hygienic Food and beverage of local products were the most significant. In room facilities and equipment from local communities were second significant. For fast Internet provided to customer was medium significant.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation-price in overall was “Medium”. When studying element of price, it found that Part of revenue and profits are used to develop local community, environment and nearby areas was much significant. The point of Being able to check price and expenses including receipts or financial documents and Price is fixed and does not depend on seasons were medium level.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation-place in overall was “ Much”. When studying element of place, found that the location at a safe location away from natural disaster or less risky from the invasion of public space and national forest was most significant. The point of Convenience to enter main roads, public transportation and transfer service was second significant and the third was convenience to enter main roads, public transportation and transfer service.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation-promotion in overall was “much”.When studying element of promotion, found that Supporting and promoting environmental conservation activities within the local or community was the most significant. And participating and supporting conservation activity, local art, traditional and cultural was the second significant. Using advertising and media tools to promote traditional, cultural and intelligence of locality was the third significant.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation- employee (people) in overall was “much”. It found that Open employment opportunity to the community members to join the organization was the most significant. Having officers/staffs who provide the information to visitors was much significant and the last Collaboration with local tour guides to provide transportation to visitors was medium significant.
GCBF ♦ Vol. 11 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2016 ♦ ISSN 1941-9589 ONLINE & ISSN 2168-0612 USB Flash Drive 487 Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings ♦ Volume 11 ♦ Number 1 The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation- physical Evidence in overall was “ Much”. It found that Beautiful architectural design harmonizes and relevant to the local environment was much level which equally to the place which is furnished and designed to show the local identity. Promotes the local costume that reflects the local life was also much level.
The degree of opinion and importance of green activity/ service and green hotel operation- process in overall was “ Much”. When the process was analyzed, found that the effective waste management and sanitary systems was secondly significant. Operation and management which are designed for environmentally friendly (3 R) was much significant. Provide an effective occupational health management system and safety to visitors and staffs was also much significant degree.
CONCLUSIONThe researcher has 2 suggestions from the study which divided into two parts for tourist (customer) and hotel entrepreneur (Service provider/hotel entrepreneur).
From the research revealed clearly that in bound tourist (Service user) has perception and understanding concept of green hotel. They are environment friendly concerned and awareness to preserve environment efficiency and satisfy if they can be part of green activity in hotel.