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«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Lyons, Patrick Daniel Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held ...»

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Winslow Orange Ware and the ancestral Hopi migration horizon

Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Lyons, Patrick Daniel

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ProQuest Information and Learning 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 USA 800-521-0000

WINSLOW ORANGE WARE

AND THE ANCESTRAL HOPI MIGRATION HORIZON

by Patrick Daniel Lyons Copyright© Patrick Daniel Lyons 2001 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

UMI Number. 3010269 Copyright 2001 by Lyons, Patrick Daniel Ail rights reserved.

_® UMI UMI Microform 3010269 Copyright 2001 by Bell & Howell Information and Leaming Company.

All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.

–  –  –

As members of the Final Examination Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Patrick. Daniel Lyons entitled Winslow Orange Ware and the Ancestral Hopi Migration Horizon and reconmiend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

–  –  –

Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate's submission of the final copy of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

Dissertation Director E. Charles Adams/Micha^S^BrScl^^feiDate

–  –  –

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Librairy to be made available to borrowers under the rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

SIGNED:

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My late grandfather, Joseph E. Carey, and my friend, Vincent M. Ochwat, started me on the journey toward becoming an archaeologist. For their encouragement, and that of my friends Michael J. Furtek and Susan Furtek, and Edward J. Lyons and Eileen Duhig-Lyons (my uncle and aunt), I am grateful. My mentors along the way have included James L. Phillips, Lawrence H. Keeley, E. Charles Adams, Michael B. Schiffer, William A. Longacre, II, Barbara J.

Mills, Jeffrey S. Dean, and Richard C. Lange. Their sage advice is much appreciated. I am also indebted to Hector Neff and Michael D. Glascock, who taught me much during my tenure at the Missouri University Research Reactor in 1999.

I thank Agnese N. Haury for her generous support in the form of an Emil W. Haury Fellowship that I held between 1994 and 1997. Financial assistance was also granted by the National Science Foundation (SBR-9812260) and the University of Arizona Department of Anthropology. James E.

Murphy contributed to the completion of this study in many ways and helped keep my family afloat, financially speaking, over the last three years. My mother-in-law, Enid N. Bluestein, her mother, the late Betty Paskow, my brother-in-law, Jerry Bluestein, and my uncle, Joseph P.





Carey helped in this regard as well. The opportunity to house-sit, for the Schiffer family, and our long stay with our friends Mark, Robin, and Cameron Sacks, are much appreciated. Thanks are also owed to my mother, Kathleen A. Lyons, who hosted Jim and me during our stay in Chicago.

Julia I. Meyers, her husband Ross, and their daughter Carmen also provided emotional support and shelter.

The compositional analysis reported here benefited from data shared by Andrew I. Duff, Barbara J. Mills, Daniela Triadan, and Maria Nieves Zedefio. Others deserving of my gratitude include: Elisa Aguilar, Kim Beckwith, Madelyn Cook, William H. Doelle, Kurt Dongoske, Alan Ferg, Meryn Finity, Douglas W. Gann, Mary Graham, Jonathan Haas, T. J. Ferguson, Kelley Hays-Gilpin, Michelle Hellickson, Kacy Hollenback, the Hopi Cultural Resources Advisory Task Team, Elaine Hughes, G. Michael Jacobs, Anne Trinkle Jones, Leigh J. Kuwanwisiwma, Vincent M. LaMotta, Alexander J.

Lindsay, Jr., Micah Lomaomvaya, Florence Lord, Richard W.

Lord, Allan J. Mclntyre, Tracy Murphy, Peter J. Pilles, Jr., Stephen E. Nash, Trisha Rude, Emory Sekaquaptewa, Dianna Thor, Fred Trevey, Arthur Vokes, William H. Walker, David R. Wilcox, Anne I. Woosley, and Lisa Zimmerman.

This dissertation is dedicated, with love, to my wife Hilary Alfia Lyons, and to our three sons, Aodhan Gedalie Lyons, Ezra Joseph Lyons, and Orson Menashe Lyons. They have changed my life for the better in many ways and for this I am grateful. I hope they are aware of how truly

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APPENDIX F: MAHAJIiAJSTOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE

BASED ON CONCENTRATIONS OF 32 ELEMENTS 793

–  –  –

APPENDIX G; MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE BASED

ON CONCENTRATIONS OF ANTIMONY (Sb) AND BARIUM (Ba) 801

APPENDIX H: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE AND

THE LCW COMPOSITIONAL GROUP 809

APPENDIX I: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE TWO SUBGROUPS

WITHIN THE LOCAL COMPOSITIONAL GROUP 811

APPENDIX J: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE AND

LOCAL CERAMIC RAW MATERIALS 816

APPENDIX K: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR LOCAL CERAMIC RAW

MATERIALS GROUPED BY PROVENANCE 818

APPENDIX L: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE AND

SPECIMENS OF LOCAL CERAMIC RAW MATERIALS AFTER SIMULATED

TEMPERING WITH SHINARUMP-DERIVED MATERIAL 820

APPENDIX M: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND

POSTERIOR CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE

CORE INAA SAMPLE AND SPECIMENS OF WHITE MOUNTAIN

RED WARE ANALYZED BY DUFF AND TRIADAN 823

APPENDIX N: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE

AND SPECIMENS OF ZUNI GLAZE WARE ANALYZED BY DUFF 825

APPENDIX O: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR SPECIMENS IN THE CORE

INAA SAMPLE IDENTIFIED AS ROOSEVELT RED WARE 826

APPENDIX P: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE

AND SPECIMENS ANALYZED BY ZEDENO 827

–  –  –

APPENDIX Q: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND

POSTERIOR CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE

INAA SAMPLE WITHOUT REFERENCE TO CONCENTRATIONS OF

ZIRCONIUM (Zr) AND STRONTIUM (Sr) 836

APPENDIX R: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE AND

SPECIMENS ANALYZED BY TRIADAN

APPENDIX S: MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE CALCULATION AND POSTERIOR

CLASSIFICATION PROBABILITIES FOR THE CORE INAA SAMPLE

AND SPECIMENS ANALYZED BY DUFF, ZEDENO, AND TRIADAN,

APPARENTLY MADE FROM CHINLE-DERIVED MATERIALS 853

–  –  –

APPENDIX CC: DATING AND ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS OF

STRUCTURES IDENTIFIED AS KIVAS, GREAT KIVAS, AND

POSSIBLE KIVAS BY PAUL S. MARTIN AND HIS COLLEAGUES 895

–  –  –

Figure 6.3, Biplot of the three-group model of the core INAA data set showing the contribution of different elements to group separation.

..261

–  –  –

Table 6.2, Particle size analysis, percentage of water of plasticity, and provenance of local raw materials included in the INAA sample.

...249

–  –  –

Table 7.9, Quantitative comparison of styles exhibited by Jeddito Orange Ware found at Awat'ovi, and Winslow Orange Ware and Jeddito Yellow Ware bowls recovered from Homol'ovi

–  –  –

This project involved instrumental neutron activation analysis of 428 ceramic vessels and clays, typological analysis of 113 5 vessels, and stylistic analysis of more than 400 bowls. Most of the items analyzed were recovered from the Homol'ovi villages, a group of eight Pueblo IIIPueblo IV (circa A.D. 1250-1400) sites located near Winslow, Arizona. These studies were conducted in order to address the question of the origin(s), geographically speaking, of the ancient inhabitants of the Homol'ovi villages.

The results of the compositional analysis indicate local production of Winslow Orange Ware at Homol'ovi and in the Petrified Forest. Circulation of Winslow Orange Ware to the Anderson Mesa area, the Tonto Basin, and the Verde Valley is also evident. Furthermore, among the earliest ceramic assemblages from the Homol'ovi sites were found locally-produced versions of ancestral Hopi pottery types and vessel forms. The compositional data also point to local production of Roosevelt Red Ware at Homol'ovi and in the Petrified Forest.

The whole vessel study resulted in the obsearvation that most Winslow Orange Ware vessels represent attempts to produce Jeddito Orange Ware using materials indigenous to the Middle Little Colorado River Valley. An examination of the dating and distribution of different kiva forms revealed that Homol'ovi ceremonial architecture reflects western Kayenta and Tusayan patterns, supporting the ceramic-based inference of ancestral Hopi migration.

Placing these results in broader context, it is possible to discern an ancestral Hopi migration horizon which corresponds with what has been called the Salado archaeological culture or the "Salado phenomenon."

By examining Hopi oral texts, it was observed that many include information that correlates with archaeological and anthropological models of Hopi origins.

By hypothesizing that these accounts represent significantly restructured texts, it is possible to resolve apparent disconformities between Hopi oral tradition and anthropological inferences. This conception of Hopi migration accounts allows resolution of conflicting interpretations of Homol'ovi, i.e., the idea that it is an ancestral Hopi place because its inhabitants moved to the Hopi Mesas circa A.D. 1400, versus the notion that it is an ancestral Hopi place because its inhabitants were immigrants from the Hopi Mesas.

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