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«Emissions at different conditions of traffic flow J.Veurrnanl, N.L.J. Gense2, I.R. Wilmink3 & H.I. Baarbe4 ‘Transport Research Centre, Ministiy of ...»

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From the analyses TNO made by considering sections (of several kilometres long) of the network of the Randstad it can be concluded that solving congestion leads to significant reduction in the local exhaust gas emissions. This holds true especially on specific routes or sections with high amounts of heavy congestion and a high share of heavy duty traffic. Like solving congestion, increasing congestion can effect the ambient air quality as well. In case of an ambient air quality bottleneck along the motorway A13 in Rotterdam it was calculated that a reduction of 2070 NO. and PMIO is possible by reducing traffic dynamics and speed limit enforcement. Of course we have to be conscious of the fact that the local traffic is only one of the sources that influences the ambient air quality. In addition we have to keep in mind that congestion isn’t a 24 hour a day problem, Table 3 gives a further impression of the order of emission changes caused by reducing or increasing congestion. It must be mentioned that the calculations do not take into account the effect of changes in congestion on traffic demand. The number of kilometres travelled is kept constant throughout the calculations.

Table 3: Effects of more or less congestion, on selected motorway sections

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4.2 Very local effects The magnitude of the effects calculated depend on whether sections of many kilometres of the network are considered or only a small section. In this study we didn’t address the very local effects of congestion. In the second stage of the study it was found that the actual tail pipe emissions of individual passenger cars and trucks increase by at least 50% (up to 800%) during heavy congestion. For local air quality this can have dramatic effects, because if traffic congestion is taking place near a densely populated area, the exposure of people to air polluting substances. will increase dramatically. The fact that in a traffic jam, dispersion of the exhaust gasses is rather poor (there is no aerodynamic © 2002 WIT Press, Ashurst Lodge, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK. All rights reserved.

Web: www.witpress.com Email witpress@witpress.com Paper from: Urban Transport VIII, LJ Sucharov and CA Brebbia (Editors).

ISBN 1-85312-905-4 turbulence behind the cars) increases the ambient concentrations of air pollution even further.

5 The limited effects of solving congestion nation-wide The calculations of the entire motorway network resulted in much smaller effects.

If we could solve all congestion on the Dutch motorways this would lead to limited reduction of emissions (see table 4). For example if we could solve all the trat%c jams, without generation of extra mileages, the COZ emissions of the motorway network reduces with about 1,5%. This is about 0,22 Mton COZ. In the Dutch “climate change policy implementation plan” it is presumed that the traffic sector should reduce emissions by about 3 Mton COZ equivalent by 2010 compared to 1990. From our study it is clear that lowering the speed by actual speed enforcement for passenger cars to 100 krdh on all sections of the motorway network can improve emission levels much more than solving all the traffic jams. For example, 10wering the speed limit to 100 krdh would reduce the COZ emissions of the motorway network with about 7%. This is about 1 Mton COZper year at current levels.

Table 4: Effects of less congestion and lowering speed limits nation-wide

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Traffic management measures should aim at keeping motorway velocities as constant as possible, or as it is called “homogenizing traffic”. Traffic management measures aiming to reduce traffic dynamics of trucks – for example prohibiting of overtaking for and by trucks, and opening dedicated truck lanes should have priority, because truck emissions are significantly higher especially in dynamic traffic situations. TNO stated that reduction of traffic dynamics is the most important ingredient for reducing the emissions of heavy duty traffic (Riemersma [2]).

Tests and implementation of traffic management measures that make traffic flows more homogeneous are indicated, since tens of percents of reduction in emissions are possible. Actually a good example is the Dutch pilot on the motorway Al. The objective of this pilot is to homogenize traffic by applying variable speed message signs, route control, providing information and “tit for tat policy” by breaking the speed limits.

© 2002 WIT Press, Ashurst Lodge, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK. All rights reserved.

Web: www.witpress.com Email witpress@witpress.com Paper from: Urban Transport VIII, LJ Sucharov and CA Brebbia (Editors).

ISBN 1-85312-905-4 L’rb(z}7 Tm7sport in tiw 21st (’tntq’ Efforts to reduce traftic dynamics and congestion should be concentrated on road sections with high risks of heavy congestion and a high share of heavy duty traffic in the built-up areas. However, awareness of possible rebound effects is necessary. By reducing congestion it is possible that new traffic is generated. By making use of traffic management it is important to prevent motorway t.raffle from shifting towards secondary roads, because emissions on the latter are much higher.

6.2 Zoning, pricing, technology and enforcement of speed limits

In specific urban zones where the air quality is really poor, it should be taken into consideration to prohibit or restrict access of heavy duty traffic and old cars without catalytic converter. Apart from restricting access, pricing could support the air quality as well. For instance, by the kilometer-levy formula, by charging for time (higher levy during peak hours), place (higher levy for busy or sensitive environments) ancl/orthe environmental pollution of the vehicle.





Furthermore, in the urban environment several traffic measures that lead to “stop and go” traffic situations, like speed bumps, should be considered from an air quality viewpoint as well. Actually in commission of the Flemish government, TNO looks into the emission effects of speed bumps, roundabouts and phased traffic lights.

In future other possible solutions to reduce traffic dynamics are automatic vehicle guidance or driver assistance systems like intelligent speed adaption.

Another important conclusion of this study is that lowering the speed limit to 100 krrdh can improve emission levels, as most of the Dutch motorways have a speed limit of 120 km/h. A discussion about speed limits comes up time and again in the Netherlands. It is still a touchy subject. However efforts to reduce speed by way of enforcement and technical means are clearly indicated. Speeds higher than 120 krdh will have to be avoided wherever and whenever possible, Additionally, in urban areas where the air quality is poor speed limits of 100 km/h should be taken into consideration.

6.3 Using different emission factors

Furthermore it is clear that especially in the urban environment different emission factors have to be used for different congestion categories in order to calculate the ambient air quality along motorways. Until now emission factors only made a distinction between road types not between congestion categories. In congestion situations this probably leads to underestimation of the calculated ambient air quality.

7 Desirable follow-up research

In general we have to be cautious when using emission factors as absolute numbers. There are several influences on the emissions that traditionally are not © 2002 WIT Press, Ashurst Lodge, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK. All rights reserved.

Web: www.witpress.com Email witpress@witpress.com Paper from: Urban Transport VIII, LJ Sucharov and CA Brebbia (Editors).

ISBN 1-85312-905-4 580 ( ‘Ib{7)I twnsport in the ?Isr (“enrw?

considered. For example from recent studies it is obvious that driving styles, air conditioning and automatic gearboxes clearly have it’s effects in fuel consumption and emissions and hence disqualify the European type approval test procedure (Eurotest) for the purpose of determining emission factors (Gense[3]).

For further improvement of emission calculations this study made clear that

further attention is needed with regard to the following:

What are the differences between measuring emissions directly on the road q and measuring in a laboratory and how can they be explored. This study is not conclusive in this respect but it is clear that meteorological circumstances, and the possible more nervous throttle use during driving in the laboratory situation, can lead to differences in emissions between directly measuring on the road and measuring in a laboratory.

Emission factors for trucks for different traffic conditions. Follow-up q investigation is recommendable because the investigations of emission factors for different traffic conditions for trucks were less detailed than those for passenger cars. Besides, trucks have a great influence on the total emission levels. In the future this influence will become even more pronounced.

Increase of knowledge of the composition of motorway traffic. For example q there are differences between motorways and secondary roads in the share of number of cars without a catalytic converter. These differences have significant effects on emissions.

8 Conclusions The study has resulted in a set of emission factors that distinguish between the levels of congestion found in actual traffic on motorways. Significant differences in emissions and fuel consumption were found for different types of traffic. High traffic dynamics, shortcut traffic, heavy congestion and high speeds lead to significant increases of regulated emissions and fuel consumption. Measures to homogenize traffic can play an important role in decreasing driving dynamics and thus lowering emissions and improving ambient air quality. Lowering and enforcing the speed limits on sections of the Dutch motorways can improve total motorway emissions levels significantly.

References

[1] Gense N.L.J., Wihnink LR. & van de Burgwal H.C. Emissions and Congestion - Estimation of emissions on road sections and the Dutch motorwqv network - Executive summary, TNO Automotive, Delft, The Netherlands (2001) [2] Riemersma LJ. & Hendriksen P., Update en evaluatie van HD Testcycli, TNO Automotive, Delft, The Netherlands (2001) [3] Gense N. L. J., Driving style, fuel consumption and tail pipe emissions, TNO Automotive, Delft, The Netherlands, report number (2000)



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