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«Compiled by HJ van Staden for SAPS Krugersdorp Basic Life Support Practitioner, Victim Support Trauma Counsellor Index Dealing with reality page 3 ...»

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Ketamine hydrochloride, or "K," is a powerful anesthetic used as an animal tranquilizer by veterinarians. This drug is medically designed for use during operations and medical procedures.

The Risks Ketamine produces a range of effects, from intoxication to delirium. It can also make you unable to move and feel pain. Since it's an anesthetic, you can easily black out and forget what happened while under the drug's influence. When combined with simple activities like driving, this drug can become deadly.

Ketamine users describe a side effect of the drug that is a terrifying experience called a "Khole" In this state, there's a sense of complete detachment from your body, combined with an inability to move. The result is something that feels like a near-death experience.

Long term effecrs Using ketamine can cause profound physical and mental problems, including impaired learning ability and memory, amnesia and potentially fatal respiratory problems.

The bottom line In some cases, ketamine can make you black out and become unable to move, so you'll feel like you're dead. In other cases, it can make you black out while you continue to be able to move, so you can imagine how that could lead to a dangerous, or even deadly, situation.

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What is Khat?

A stimulant. For centuries, khat, the fresh young leaves of the Catha edulis shrub, have been consumed where the plant is cultivated, primarily in East Africa and the Arabian peninsula.

There, chewing khat predates the use of coffee and is used in a similar social context. Khat has been brought into the United States and other countries for use by emigrants from the source countries. It contains a number of chemicals among which are two controlled substances, cathinone and cathine. As the leaves mature or dry, cathinone is converted to cathine, which significantly reduces its stimulatory properties.

Methcathinone, commonly called cat, is occasionally confused with khat. Methcathinone is a synthetic Schedule I substance that has a similar chemical structure to the cathinone in the khat plant. Methcathinone is produced in clandestine laboratories and sold as a methamphetamine alternative. The addictive properties and side effects of this synthetic are more intense than either of the naturally occurring khat substances.

How is it used?

Khat is typically chewed like tobacco. The fresh leaves, twigs, and shoots of the khat shrub are chewed, and then retained in the cheek and chewed intermittently to release the active drug. Dried plant material can be made into tea or a chewable paste, but dried khat is not as potent as the fresh plant product.

Khat can also be smoked and even sprinkled on food.

What are its short-term effects?

Compulsive use may result in manic behavior with grandiose delusions or in a paranoid type of illness, sometimes accompanied by hallucinations.

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LSD is one of the strongest hallucinogenic drugs. It can disrupt the normal functioning of your brain, possibly for the short term, or possibly for life.

AKA Acid, blotter, cubes, microdot, yellow sunshine, blue heaven, Cid, stamps What is it?

LSD (or its full name: lysergic acid diethylamide) is a potent hallucinogen that dramatically alters your thoughts and your perception of reality. It was discovered in 1938 in a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. LSD has a high potential for abuse.

The Risks LSD disrupts how your nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin interact throughout the brain and spinal cord. By disturbing the normal functioning of the brain, LSD distorts visual judgment, sensations, moods and feelings. And these changes can quickly become frightening. Some users experience terrifying thoughts, feelings of despair, fear of losing control, fear of insanity or even death. When you're completely unable to get a grip on reality, it becomes very easy for an unexpected, fatal accident to happen.

Long term effects Flashbacks are a strange but relatively common experience of LSD use. Suddenly and without warning, a few days or even a year later, the brain can produce feelings and thoughts that replay the effects of being on the drug. In some people, these flashbacks can occur over and over, causing a debilitating condition known as Hallucinogen-Induced Persisting Perceptual Disorder (HPPD). Flashbacks or not, LSD users can also experience long-lasting psychoses (a complete loss of contact with reality) or severe depression.

The bottom line LSD disrupts the normal functioning of the brain, making you see images, hear sounds and feel sensations that seem real but aren't. As one of the most important organs of your body, your brain works tirelessly to oversee all of the feelings, actions and operations of your body.

When you think about it, LSD seems like a cruel and dangerous hoax to play on your brain.

–  –  –

South Africa is the largest abuser of Mandrax in the world. Statistics show that Mandrax with Dagga is still the drug of preference in the largest parts of South Africa. Mandrax is mainly sold in the form of a tablet and is highly addictive.

AKA White Pipe, Buttons, MX, Gholfsticks, Doodies, Lizards, Press outs, Flowers What is it Mandrax is a synthetic drug that is compiled by means of the mixing of chemicals in a chemical process and a tablet is then produced. The active ingredient in Mandrax is Methaqualone. In the sixties and early seventies these tablets were prescribed as sleeping tablets. Other medicinal uses included illnesses like high blood pressure and anxiety attacks.





Mandrax was originally known as a safe and non-dependent drug. It was the drug that people reckoned was going to be the miracle cure of the world at its time.

It was however found that Mandrax had various side effects, especially if it was used with Dagga and alcohol, which was life threatening because it caused psychological and physical Compiled by HJ van Staden for SAPS Krugersdorp Basic Life Support Practitioner, Victim Support Trauma Counsellor dependency. This caused a drastic increase in burglaries, especially at pharmacies, where it was found that Mandrax specifically was stolen. Mandrax was banned in most parts of the world because of the misuse.. The banning of Mandrax caused crime syndicates to use this opportunity to continue producing it by means of clandestine laboratories. The market was already established and the need for the drug made it a profitable business.

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Stencil from clandestine laboratories The Risk Experience has shown Mandrax is smoked to get a greater "Rush". This is because of the toleration effect of the body of a human who started experimenting with small amounts of Dagga but later have to add Mandrax to achieve the same effect.

Mandrax is highly addictive. People become physically dependent on it and have severe withdrawal symptoms in rehabilitation.

DESCRIPTION OF MANDRAX

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• The Mandrax that is currently confiscated varies drastically in appearance: tablets are found in thickness of 1cm, which is known as "Double Barrels";

• the colour ranges from beige, pink, blue, purple, black, brown and green.

The emblem on the Mandrax tablet has also changed and is mostly established by means of the individual presses used by the smugglers.

–  –  –

The long term affects and side effects

Mandrax has more and stronger side effects than Dagga, such as :

serious emotional problems, depression, drastic weight loss, headaches, stomach cramps, insomnia, epilepsy, aggression, toxic psychosis, the muscle control of the body is effected which causes the Mandrax user to fall often Signs of a user Yellow stained hands, bloodshot eyes, gaunt appearance, rotten teeth, drowsiness, unnatural sleeping patterns, loss of appetite, increased saliva secretion and swollen abdomen.

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

Look out for

–  –  –

SMUGGLING OF MANDRAX

Mandrax is packaged in 1 000 tablet packets by the producers and is then exported on a large

scale and brought into the country by the following means :

• in false panels of cars

• in spare wheels of trucks

• in false fuel tanks

• in containers

–  –  –

It's a plant, so it's natural, and natural is always good-right? Think again, because both natural and synthetic versions of marijuana can cause a long-lasting, negative impact on your developing brain.

Compiled by HJ van Staden for SAPS Krugersdorp Basic Life Support Practitioner, Victim Support Trauma Counsellor AKA Blunt, dope, ganja, grass, herb, joint, bud, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, green, trees, smoke, sinsemilla, skunk, weed, hash, tea, chronic, 420, Dagga, aaptwak What is it?

A green and brown mix of dried flowers, stems, seeds and leaves from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. The main active chemical is THC (tretrahydrocannabinol), which moves quickly through the bloodstream to the brain and other organs throughout the body.

Marijuana is a mild hallucinogen that can also act as a depressant or a stimulant.

The Risks You may hear people ask, "If it's dangerous, why do so many people have medical marijuana cards?" It's true that scientists have determined that the cannabis plant has the potential for addressing a range of medical conditions. But it's also true that when you're young and your body is still growing, marijuana actually has the potential of inflicting a long-lasting, negative impact on your developing brain.

Using marijuana at a young age can result in structural and functional deficits of the brain.

This could cause you to develop weakened verbal and communication skills, lowered learning capabilities and a shortened attention span.

Long term effects In addition to the possible effects on your brain, smoking marijuana may also be hazardous to your developing lungs. Marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke.

You may have heard people argue that marijuana is a "gateway drug" to harder drug use.

Some say this is a myth, others insist it is a fact. The truth is that there is a link. Research shows that the earlier you start using marijuana, the more likely you are to become dependent on it or other types of drugs later in life.

The bottom line Some movies and music make "stoner" culture seem cool, natural and like it's not a big deal.

But if being fit and getting good grades are some of your goals, using marijuana can become a big deal, fast. Marijuana limits your brain's effectiveness, slows your thinking and impairs your coordination. A number of studies have also shown an association between chronic marijuana use and increased rates of anxiety, depression and schizophrenia.

–  –  –

Highly addictive and toxic to the brain, meth will give you a high that can damage your body and brain for life.

AKA Meth, ice, crank, chalk, crystal, fire, glass, go fast, speed, Tina, T What is it?

Meth, or methamphetamine, is a powerfully addictive stimulant that is both long-lasting and toxic to the brain. Its chemistry is similar to speed (amphetamine), but meth has far more dangerous effects on the body's central nervous system.

Meth has a high potential for abuse and may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

The Risks Like cocaine and speed, even small amounts of meth can produce a rapid heart rate, irregular heartbeat, increased blood pressure and elevated body temperatures. These symptoms, especially when meth is taken at high doses, can cause death from stroke, heart attack or organ failure due to overheating.

Meth works by severely changing the way the brain functions. First, it increases the release of the brain chemical dopamine. At the same time, it blocks the brain from absorbing the dopamine released. Studies show that alterations in the dopamine system in the brain are associated with reduced motor skills and impaired verbal skills.

Long term effects Because it's such a highly addictive drug, using meth a few times can lead to getting hooked — and the long-term effects of this drug are ugly and scary. It can make you lose weight, lose your teeth and develop scabs and open sores on your skin and face. Chronic meth abusers can become anxious and violent. Meth users often display a range of psychotic behaviors, including paranoia, hallucinations and delusions. One of the most common meth delusions is the feeling of insects crawling under the skin.

The bottom line Powerfully addictive and powerfully damaging to your body and brain—you might ask yourself if meth is really worth the risk. If you get hooked, paranoia, skin scabs and a toothless "meth mouth" might be the best you'll get out of the deal. But long-term brain damage and death are the risks you also take.

–  –  –

Some people think that because they're natural, that means they're okay to ingest. But the truth is that hallucinogenic mushrooms are a natural poison that can harm your body and mind.

AKA Magic mushrooms, shrooms, caps, boomers What is it?

The active chemical in hallucinogenic mushrooms is called psilocybin. This chemical is found in approximately 190 species of edible mushrooms. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have a high potential for abuse.

The Risks Mushrooms work by disrupting how your nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin interact throughout the brain and spinal cord. By changing the normal functioning of serotonin in the brain, mushrooms distort the way you process information and can make you hallucinate.

When you hallucinate, it becomes difficult to tell the difference between fantasy and reality.

You may see, feel and hear things that don't exist. You can also have rapid and intense emotional mood swings. This shift in perception can be frightening. It can cause panic attacks and psychosis (a complete loss of contact with reality). As you can imagine, in this state of mind, it can be very easy to have a dangerous, or even fatal, accident.



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