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«PROFESSIONAL USER GUIDE © 2007 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Copyright Adobe® After Effects® CS3 User Guide for Windows® and ...»

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Separate video fields If you want to use interlaced or field-rendered footage (such as NTSC video) in an After Effects project, you will get the best results if you separate the video fields when you import the footage. After Effects separates video fields by creating a full frame from each field, preserving all of the image data from the original footage.

Separating fields is critical if you plan to make significant changes to the footage. When you scale, rotate, or apply effects to interlaced video, unwanted artifacts, such as crossed fields, are often introduced. By separating fields, After Effects accurately converts the two interlaced frames in the video to noninterlaced frames, while preserving the maximum amount of image quality. Using noninterlaced frames allows After Effects to apply edits and effects consistently and at the highest quality.

After Effects creates field-separated footage from a single formerly interlaced field by splitting fields into two independent frames. Each new frame has only half the information of the original frame, so some frames may appear to have a lower resolution than others when viewed at Draft quality. When you render the final composition, After Effects reproduces high-quality interlaced frames for videotape. When you render a movie at Best quality, After Effects interpolates between the scan lines of a field to produce maximum image quality.

If your output will not be interlaced, it's best to use noninterlaced source footage, to avoid the need to separate fields.

However, if a noninterlaced version of your source footage is not available, interlaced footage will work fine.

When you render a composition containing field-separated footage, set the Field Rendering option to the same field order as your video equipment. If you don’t field-render the composition, or if you field-render with the incorrect settings, the final movie may appear too soft, jerky, or distorted.

To very quickly give video footage a more film-like appearance, import the footage twice, and interpret each footage item with a different field order. Then add them both to the same composition and blend them together. The misinterpreted layer will add some film-like blur.

After Effects automatically separates fields for D1 and DV video footage items. You can manually separate fields for all other types of video footage in the Interpret Footage dialog box.

1 Select the footage item in the Project panel.

2 Choose File Interpret Footage Main.

3 Choose an option from the Separate Fields menu.

4 Click Preserve Edges (Best Quality Only) to increase image quality in nonmoving areas when the image is rendered at Best quality. Then click OK.

Note: If the field settings in the Interpret Footage dialog box are correct for the input footage and the field settings in the Render Settings dialog box are correct for the output device, you can mix footage items of different field orders in a composition. If either of these settings is incorrect, however, the frames will be in the correct order, but the field order may be reversed, resulting in jerky, unacceptable images.

AFTER EFFECTS CS3 72 User Guide Determine the original field order The field order for an interlaced video footage item determines the order in which the two video fields (upper and lower) are displayed. A system that draws the upper lines before the lower lines is called upper-field first; one that draws the lower lines before the upper lines is called lower-field first. Many standard-definition formats (such as DV NTSC) are lower-field first, whereas many high-definition formats (such as 1080i DVCPRO HD) are upper-field first.

Note: Upper-field first corresponds to Even Field First in an ElectricImage file.

The order in which the fields are displayed is important, especially when the fields contain motion. If you separate video fields using the wrong field order, motion will not appear smooth.

Some programs, including After Effects, label the field order when rendering interlaced video files. When you import a labeled video file, After Effects honors the field order label automatically. You can override this field order by applying different footage interpretation settings.

If a file does not contain a field order label, you can match the original field order of your footage. If you are not sure which field order was used to interlace a footage item, use the procedure below to find out.

1 Select the item in the Project panel.

2 Choose File Interpret Footage Main.

3 In the Interpret Footage dialog box, select Upper Field First from the Separate Fields menu, and then click OK.

4 In the Project panel, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) as you double-click the footage to open it in the Footage panel.

5 If the Time Controls panel is not visible, choose Window Time Controls.

6 In the Footage panel, find a segment that contains one or more moving areas.

7 Using the Next Frame button in the Time Controls panel, step forward at least five frames in the Footage panel.

Moving areas should move consistently in one direction. If the moving areas move backward every other frame, the wrong field-separation option has been applied to the footage.

Remove 3:2 or 24Pa pulldown from video When you transfer 24-fps film to 29.97-fps video, you use a process called 3:2 pulldown, in which the film frames are distributed across video fields in a repeating 3:2 pattern. The first frame of film is copied to fields 1 and 2 of the first frame of video, and also to field 1 of the second video frame. The second frame of film is then spread across the next two fields of video—field 2 of the second video frame and field 1 of the third frame of video. This 3:2 pattern is repeated until four frames of film are spread over five frames of video, and then the pattern is repeated.





The 3:2 pulldown process results in whole frames (represented by a W) and split-field frames (represented by an S).

The three whole video frames contain two fields from the same film frame. The remaining two split-field frames contain a video frame from two different film frames. The two split-field frames are always adjacent to each other.

The phase of 3:2 pulldown refers to the point at which the two split-field frames fall within the first five frames of the footage.

Phase occurs as a result of two conversions that happen during 3:2 pulldown: 24-fps film is redistributed through 30-fps video, so each of four frames of 24-fps film is spread out over five frames of 30(29.97)-fps video. First, the film is slowed down 0.1% to match the speed difference between 29.97 fps and 30 fps. Next, each film frame is repeated in a special pattern and mated to fields of video.

AFTER EFFECTS CS3 73 User Guide

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When you apply 3:2 pulldown to footage, one frame of the film (A) is separated into two or three interlaced video fields (B) which are grouped into video frames containing two fields each.

When importing interlaced video that was originally transferred from film, you can remove the 3:2 pulldown that was applied during the transfer from film to video as you separate fields so that effects you apply in After Effects don’t appear distorted.

It’s important to remove 3:2 pulldown from video footage that was originally film so that effects you add in After Effects synchronize perfectly with the original frame rate of film. Removing 3:2 pulldown reduces the frame rate by 1/5—from 30 to 24 fps or from 29.97 to 23.976 fps, which also reduces the number of frames you have to change. To remove 3:2 pulldown, you must also indicate the phase of the 3:2 pulldown.

After Effects also supports Panasonic DVX100 24p DV camera pulldown, called 24P Advance (24Pa). This format is used by some cameras to capture 23.976 progressive-scan imagery using standard DV tapes.

Before you remove 3:2 pulldown, separate the fields as either upper-field first or lower-field first. Once the fields are separated, After Effects can analyze the footage and determine the correct 3:2 pulldown phase and field order. If you already know the phase and field order, choose them from the Separate Fields and the Remove Pulldown menus in the Interpret Footage dialog box.

1 In the Project panel, select the footage item from which to remove 3:2 pulldown.

2 Choose File Interpret Footage Main.

3 In the Fields and Pulldown section, select Upper Field First or Lower Field First from the Separate Fields menu.

4 Do one of the following and click OK:

• If you know the phase of the 3:2 or 24Pa pulldown, choose it from the Remove Pulldown menu.

• To have After Effects determine the correct settings, click Guess 3:2 Pulldown or Guess 24Pa Pulldown.

Note: If your footage file contains frames from different sources, the phase may not be consistent. If this is the case, import the footage multiple times, once for each phase, and interpret each footage item with a different setting. Then, add each footage item to your composition and trim each layer to use only the appropriate frames.

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The root of the P2 folder structure is a CONTENTS folder. Each essence item (an item of video or audio) is contained in a separate MXF wrapper file; the video MXF files are in the VIDEO subfolder, and the audio MXF files are in the AUDIO subfolder. The relationships between essence files and the metadata associated with them are tracked by XML files in the CLIP subfolder.

Note: Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects do not support proxies recorded by Panasonic P2 camcorders in P2 card PROXY folders.

The video and audio on a P2 card are already in a digital form, as if the P2 card were a hard disk, so there is no capture step involved in importing media from a P2 card. The process of reading the data from the card and converting it to a format that can be used in a project is sometimes referred to as ingest.

For your computer to read P2 cards, you must install the appropriate driver, which you can download from the Panasonic website. Panasonic also provides the P2 Viewer application, with which you can browse and play media stored on a P2 card. See the Panasonic website for details: www.adobe.com/go/learn_pp_panasonicp2.

Because Panasonic P2 cards use the FAT32 file system, each file is limited to a size of 4 GB. When a shot is recorded that requires more than the 4 GB, a P2 camera creates another file and continues recording the shot to the new file without interruption. This is referred to as clip spanning, because the shot spans more than one file or clip. Similarly, a camera may span a shot across files on different P2 cards: if the camera has more than one P2 card loaded, it will record the shot until it runs out of room on the first P2 card, create a new file on the next P2 card with available space, and continue recording the shot to it. Although a single shot can be recorded to a group of multiple spanned clips, the multiple-file shot is designed to be treated as a single clip or footage item in a video editing application. For After Effects to automatically import a group of spanned clips simultaneously and assemble them into a single footage item, they must all have been recorded to the same P2 card and none of the files can be missing, including the associated XML metadata file.

1 (Optional) Copy the entire contents of the P2 card to a hard disk.

Though it is possible to import assets into Adobe Premiere Pro or After Effects directly from a P2 card, it is usually more efficient to copy the contents of the P2 card to a hard disk before importing.

2 Choose File Import.

3 Navigate to the CONTENTS folder.

4 Select one or more MXF files:

• To import a video essence item and its associated audio essence items, select the MXF files from the VIDEO folder.

• To import only the audio essence items, select the MXF files from the AUDIO folder.

• To import a group of spanned clips for a shot that were recorded onto the same P2 card, select only one of the MXF files in the group from the VIDEO folder. The group will be imported as a single footage item with a duration equal to the total duration of all the spanned clips it includes. If you select more than one of these spanned clips, you will import duplicates of the whole group of spanned clips, as duplicate footage items in the Project panel.

You cannot import spanned clips from a shot that spans two different cards as a single footage item. Rather, you must select a single MXF file belonging to the shot from each card to create a separate footage item for the part of the shot recorded on each card. For example, if a group of spanned clips for a single shot itself spans two cards, you must select a spanned clip from the group on card 1 and another from the group on card 2. This will import the contents of the shot into two footage items in the Project panel.

The Date column in the Project panel shows when each source clip was acquired. After you import spanned clips, you can use the Date value to determine their correct chronological order within the shot.

AFTER EFFECTS CS3 75 User Guide For additional information on the Panasonic P2 format and workflows with Adobe digital video software, see the

Adobe website:

• P2 workflow guide for Adobe digital video products: www.adobe.com/go/learn_dva_p2workflowguide

• Dave Helmly’s video introduction to the P2 workflow in After Effects:

www.adobe.com/go/learn_dva_p2davehelmly Importing AAF and OMF files (Windows only) AAF (Advanced Authoring Format) is a multimedia file interchange format that contains all of the editing decisions of a project from a non-linear editor (NLE). Using AAF, you can exchange NLE projects between platforms, systems, and applications. AAF files do not contain media, such as video and audio; rather, they contain editing decisions and links to media.

OMF (Open Media Framework) is an extensible, object-oriented format that provides a means of tracking production and post-production information. Unlike AAF files, OMF files can contain media as well as project information. An AAF file may link to an associated OMF file as a media source. When you import an AAF file that references an OMF file, the OMF footage is also imported. After Effects imports only raw (essence) OMF files, which are OMF files that have embedded media and no project information. After Effects doesn't import OMF project files.



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