«DOCUMENT RESUME ED 278 089 EA 019 067 AUTHOR McCune, Shirley D. TITLE Guide to Strategic Planning for Educators. INSTITUTION Association for ...»
ED 278 089 EA 019 067
AUTHOR McCune, Shirley D.
TITLE Guide to Strategic Planning for Educators.
INSTITUTION Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, Alexandria, Va.
REPORT NO ISBN-0-87120-140-2
PUB DATE 86
AVAILABLE FROM Publication Sales, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 125 North West Street, Alexandria, VA 22314 (St.ock No. 611-86044; $6.00).
PUB TYPE Guides - Non-Classroom Use (055) -- Reports Descriptive (141) EDRS PRICE MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
DESCRIPTORS Decentralization; *Demography; Economic Factors;
*Educational Planning; Elementary Secondary Education; Employment Patterns; Family Characteristics; Futures (of Society); *Leadership Responsibility; Planning; *Problem Solving;
*Technological Advancement IDENTIFIERS *information Society; *Strategic Planning
Chapter 3 examines the leadership dimension_of strategic planning, including four major elements that can significantly improve most districts' management systems: (1) information systems for decision-making, (2) a common sense of direction, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) linkages among units. The chapter closes by listing characteristics of effective leaders. Included are several figures and 21 references. Appendices include an outline of probable directions for educational restructuring, external and internal scanning checklists, a pattern analysis of national planning assumptions, and an example of data analysis. (MLH) ** ************************* ***** ** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document.
******************* ***************** ****** ey D. Mc une
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLI Mice of Educelional ReWaren and IrnOrovernant
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Guide to Strate Planning for Educators Shirley D. McCune
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Develop ent 125 North West Street Alexandria, VA 22314-2798 (703) 549-9110 Shirley D. McCune is Regional Director, Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory, 12500 E. Iliff Aye., Suite 201, Aurora, CO 80014.
Appendix A. Probable Directions for Educational Restructuring ___..................... 66..
Appendix B. External Scanning Data Checklist..... 70 Appendix C. Pattern Analysis: National Planning Assumptions 75 Appendix D. Internal Scanning Data Checklist 77 Appendix E. Example of Data Analysis 81 Notes 83 Bibliography 85 Introduction Today we find ourselves in a world of transition. The industrial age, during which the United States grew into a strong, affluent world power, is drawing to a close. A new society, the information age, continues to move powerfully into place. This transformation, first seen in the economic sector of our society, is now visible in our social, political, organizational, and personal lives.
Despite the changes evident in every sector, we are still suffering from the human problems of reorienting and reorganizing our institutions, our activities, and our lives to meet the challenges and changed conditions of our new society. History suggests that it is difficult for any civilization that excelled in one age to maintain its achievements under a new set of conditions. Our tendency is to stick with the things that worked in the past in the hope that they will eventually work again.
This is a particularly frustrating time for educational institutions.
On the one hand, society is paying more attention to education's needs and beginning to provide resources aimed at improving its effectiveness. On the other hand, an awareness is slowly developing that the nature of the progress to date is unlikely to keep up with the larger changes in society. Broader questions are being raised about what is needed.
Given the changes in the larger society, what knowledge, skills, and competencies are children going to need to participate fully in the future? What should be the role of schools in meeting the larger societal needs of the present and future?
This book describes a process particularly suited to address those issuessbutegic planning. This creative management process is powered by the basic human drive to solve problemsto eliminate discrepancies between what is and what must be. A primary value of strategic planning is that it forces people and institutions to reexamine, to refocus, and to seek out or create new means for accomplishing their purposes.
There is nothing magical about the strategic planning process, however. It takes its meaning and value from the context in which it's applied. This book, therefore, first explores that contextthe economic, demographic, political, social, educational, and technological changes in the environment that already are affecting our schools.
Chapter 2 describes the strategic planning process and how it can address these conditions. The final chapter, "Strategic Management
GUIDE TO SnGIc PLANNING FOR EDUCATORSand Leadership," explores the compatibility of the strategic planning process with new forms of educational management, and its role in creating and supporting the leadership needed to address the future.
Underlying each chapter is the belief that "fixing" or improving schools in accord with outmoded images of what is possible is unlikely to push education far or fast enough. The task confronting educators and society is to restructure schools and to develop organizations that "match" the changing conditions of a changing society. "Restructuring" is not used here as a synonym for "improvement," although they are closely linked ends of the same process. Improvement focuses on bettering the state of the art, finding more eifective means to relatively unchanging ends. Restructuring, because it is a response to changes in the external environment already affecting schools, allows for significant shifts away from what has been done in the past. It may include possibilities not derived from past experience; for example, changes in the goals of educational programs, the methods of delivering services, the clients to be served, management structures, evaluation and accountability procedures, financing, and community outreach and relationships.
The starting point for restructuring is an examination of what has changed and the identification of possibilities. Strategic planning provides an effective process for undertaking that task. It begins with an understanding of the economic, demoglaphic, political, social, educational, and tezhnological changes in the environment and how they affect schools. The following section outlines some of the forces affecting educational systemsforces schools must address if they are to remain productive and strong.
SHIRLEY D. McCuNE
PLANNINGWander ng between two worlds, one dead, The other powerless to be born."
Matthew Arnold Forces Affecting Educational Systems Change, at an ever-increasing rate, is characteristic of our society.
A child entering school today comes from a world significantly different from the one that shaped many of the beliefs and assumptions of the adults who work there. Regardless of future projections, economic, demographic, and organizational changes have already taken place.
Economic Restructuring The United States transformation from an industrial to an information society manifested ithelf first in a restructuring of the economy.
John Naisbitt, author of Megatrends, estimates that about 60 percent of the necessary restructuring of the U.S. economy has already taken place.' However, the restructuring process is not over nor has it been smooth. For one thing, strong regional differences still exist in economic conditions throughout the country as well as differences in the abilities of regions to diversify and replace nonproductive activities.
There is a continuing lag in anticipating and planning for change. The
GUIDE TO STRATEGIC PLANN NG FOR EDUCATORSregional displacement and pain resulting from economic restructuring is felt unevenly throughout the country.
Following are some ways in which the U.S. economy has already
The nature of work has changed, The energy that drives society has changed, The United States position in world trade has changed, Patterns of employment have changed, and The composition of the work force has changed.
Each of these economic changes has important implications for education and training. The nature of these changes and the challenges they pose for education are outlined below.
The Nature of Work In 1800, 80 percent of the workers in the United States held agricultural jobs; in 1984, 3 percent; and in 1986, slightly over 2 percent.
This reduction of agricultural jobs continues as the farm crisis, which began in the Midwest, has expanded to other regions of the nation.
Similarly, in 1950, 55 percent of United States workers held blue-collar industrial jobs; in 1984, only about 24 percent were engaged in the industrial sector.2 Industrial jobs also continue to decline as foreign competition and automation shape our economy.
What has replaced these sectors of the economy? What has happened to the people who held these jobs? In 1980, service jobs (economic activities that do not result in tangible, storable products or require a large amount of capital or equipment) had grown to include 30 percent of all jobs.3 (See fig. 14.) Another change occurred in the number of information jobs. Information jobs are those that produce machines to handle information, run communications networks, produce new technologies, and use technologies to provide information services and products. In 1983, 56 percent of jobs in service, industry, and agriculture were classified as information jobs. Included in this category of 54 million information workers are 11 million executives and managers, 16 million professionals and technical workers, 11 million salespersons, and 16 million clerical workers.4 It is predicted that over the next 20 to 30 years, the number of professional and technical workers will expand from 16 to 24 percent, becoming the largest sector of the labor force. The number of clerical workers will remain proportionally stable at 15 percent, and salespeople will experience a modest increase from 11 to 15 percent.5 On the other hand, the number of factory workers will decline 20 to 25 percent over the next decade as a result of robotic and computer-operated factory automation.6 Twenty to 30 million of the U.S.'s 54 million whiteTHE CONTEXT FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING
collar workers will find their jobs affected by automation before 1990, and an additional 10 million will see changes in the nature or availability of work thereafter.'" The total number of jobs in the work force is expected to decline by perhaps 5 to 13 million positions as automation, after taking over large firms, makes inroads into smaller ones.8 While the number of workers will decrease, the knowledge and skills required of persons holding jobs will increase. Automation and.
technology demand higher abilities:
Organizational design must recognize that information technclogy will totally transform traditional roles. Executives will be upgraded from
GUME TO STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR EDUCATORS
investors to planners. Managers will be upgraded from coordinators to investors. Professional and technical personnel will be upgraded from specialists to generalists engaged in organizing the delivery of services to customers. Clerical personnel will be upgraded from support-staff members to specialists in the delivery of information services.
Salespersons will be upgraded from distributors of information to general managers of customer care and retention.9 The primary outcome of this restructuring is in the nature of work itself. In the past, physical capabilities and specialized skills were the essentials for employment. But work today and in the future is increasingly a matter of an individual's intellectual skillsthe ability to process and use information. Information workers will be required to have even higher levels of literacy and thinking skills to find and hold jobs.
Not only will future workers need to possess higher levels of literacy and thinking, they will be required to continually upgrade their knowledge and skills. It is estimated that a majority of jobs in the future will be substantially restructured every five to seven years.