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«SOCIAL SCIENCES HOME ECONOMY Nurten Çekal Received: February 2007 University of Pamukkale Accepted: July 2007 ncekal © 2007 ...»

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When the difference in the length of boiling milk is examined, the rate of the cooks who use accurate methods of boiling milk is the highest in star hotels (39.7%). The rate is 34.4% for official organizations and 5.3% for holiday villages. This difference is found to be statistically significant (F=8.154 p0.01).

The food group that loses their nutrition elements most through preparation and cooking is vegetables. Green leaf vegetables are first cleaned (off their unwanted parts), then washed and finally cut up when prepared for cooking [5]. When cooks’ method of preparing green leaf vegetables for cooking was investigated, it was found that the rate of those who use the correct method (cleaning, washing, cutting up) was 39.2%. On the other hand, 45.3% of the cooks stated that they first washed the vegetables, then cleaned and cut up and washed again.

The rate of those who washed, cleaned and cut up was 8.8%. Six point seven percent (6.7%) of the cooks clean, soak and then cut up. The highest rate of those applying the correct method is in holiday e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

villages by 55.2%, and this value is followed by the cooks employed in star hotels %35.9 and official organizations (28.1%).

Sürücüoğlu et al. (2001) examined the preparation methods of green leaf vegetables of the women involved in their research into the nutrition practices and nutritional knowledge levels of women of two generations (mother-daughter) and found that 31.6% of the participants applied the correct method. This finding is similar to the findings of this study.

Nutrition in Turkey is based on grains. Grains are a good source of thiamin. As thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin, it dissolves into the water during the preparation and cooking of foods, and removing the cooking water will result in an increased vitamin loss. If foods containing thiamin is cooked in plenty of water, some of the thiamin will be lost due to heat and if the cooking water is removed, as thiamin has dissolved into it, a considerable amount of it will have been wasted. Not pouring away the cooking water after cooking pasta and adding enough amount of water for the pasta to absorb in will prevent vitamin losses [1, 7, 8, 12, and 16].

Looking into the pasta cooking methods of the cooks revealed that 61.5% of them poured away the water that pasta was boiled in and 22.3% cooked pasta until the water has been absorbed. Sixteen point two percent (16.2%) of the cooks, on the other hand, did not pour the boiling water away but used it in making soups and other dishes. When the organizations were taken into consideration, the highest rate of removing and pouring away the boiling water of pasta was found to be the cooks working in official organizations (84.4%). The ratio falls to 67.9% and 28.9% for the cooks employed in star hotels and holiday villages, respectively. The difference between the pasta cooking methods of the cooks employed in holiday villages and those employed in official organizations and star hotels is found to be statistically significant (F=7.141 p0.01).

Ateş et al.(1986) established in a study they conducted to determine the food preparation and cooking methods of 300 housewives living in socio-economically different neighbourhoods that 87.5% of the women removed and poured away the boiling water of pasta. In their study on women’s food preparation and cooking methods, Sürücüoğlu and Balgamış (1987) asserted that 66.5% of the participants boiled the pasta and poured away the boiling water, 28.2% cooked pasta in little water and had it absorb the water and 5.3% did not pay attention to the cooking procedure. These results are similar to our findings.

In dry leguminous plants, thiamin, one of the B group vitamins, is found. As thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin, it dissolves into the water during the preparation and cooking of foods, and removing the cooking water will result in an increased vitamin loss. Not pouring away the cooking water after cooking pasta and using this water for dishes, in which water needs to be added, will both increase its taste and also will ensure benefiting from the nutritive elements that passed into the water [3 and 8].

When cooks’ methods of cooking dry leguminous seeds were taken into account, the most common method was found to be first boiling them and then pouring away the boiling water, a method applied by 76.4% of the cooks. This ratio was followed by 23.6% of the cooks who first soaked the seeds and then directly cooked. When the organizations were considered, it was determined that the highest rate of the cooks who first boiled leguminous seeds and then poured away the boiling water was in official organizations (90.6%), followed by star hotel cooks by 85.9% and holiday village cooks by 44.7%. This is a statistically significant difference (F=14.351 p 0.01).

e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

Ateş et al. (1986) established in a study they conducted to determine the food preparation and cooking methods of 300 housewives living in socio-economically different neighbourhoods that 83.1% of the women removed and poured away the boiling water of dry leguminous seeds. In their study on women’s food preparation and cooking methods, Sürücüoğlu and Balgamış (1987) asserted that 75.5% of the participants poured away the boiling water of dry leguminous seeds. Sürücüoğlu et al. (2001) determined in their study on the differences of nutritional knowledge of women of two generations that 55.0% of the women first soaked the seeds, then boiled and poured away the boiling water, 33.5% first soaked in water and then cooked directly while 1.1% cooked without pouring away the boiling water. These results are similar to our findings.





–  –  –

4. RESULTS (SONUÇ) In this study, it has been determined that 98%, 66.9%, 61.5% and 76.4% of the cooks cook pilav, milky desserts, pasta and dry leguminous seeds, respectively, using wrong methods. The rates of those who cook milk and green leaf vegetables wrongly, on the other hand, are 70.3% and 60.8%, respectively. The wrong preparation and cooking methods applied to these foods cause losses in various nutrition elements.

As a result, it has been determined that the rate of cooks who cook milky desserts, pasta and dry leguminous seeds and prepare green leaf vegetables by applying the correct method is higher in holiday villages than the rate of cooks in star hotels and official organizations. This result can be because the educational status and the ages of the cooks working in holiday villages are higher than those of the cooks employed in the kitchens of star hotels and official organizations. Yet, the impact of the educational status and age on food preparation and cooking methods was not found to be statistically significant. Although the rate of cooks who apply correct methods is higher in holiday villages than star hotels and official organizations, it was determined that in general cooks applied wrong methods of preparing and cooking food, which showed that they did not have enough knowledge of food preparation and cooking.

Today, the number of individuals eating collectively out of their homes is increasing. During the trips made for various reasons such as holidays or other, people have to eat out of their homes. In some organizations, people have to eat all three of their meals in their work places. For an adequate and well-balanced nutrition, it is important that as well as being delicious and attractive, the food must be nutritious; in other words, it should not lose its nutritive value. In this respect, a widespread training should be supplied for the cooks working in both commercial and organizational enterprises.

In Turkey, there are not any studies regarding cooks, despite the fact that there is some research done on the application of correct methods of food preparation and cooking. This research is expected to shed light on the subject and be helpful to the researchers for planning some training in view of the data presented.

e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

REFERENCES (KAYNAKLAR)

1. Aktaş, N., (1987). Besinlerin Hazırlanma ve Pişirilmesi Sırasında Oluşan Besin Ögesi Kayıpları (Food Element Losses During the Preparation and Cooking of Foods). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları: 1018.

2. Aktaş, A., (2001). Ağırlama Hizmet İşletmelerinde Yiyecek ve İçecek Yönetimi (Food And Beverages Management In Entertainment Service Enterprises). Antalya: Livane Matbaası.

3. Arlı, M., Şanlıer, N., Küçükkömürler, S., Ersoy, Y., Yaman, M., Özgen, L., Seren, S. ve Gümüş, H., (1981). Yiyecek Üretimi 1 (Food Production 1). İstanbul: Ya-Pa Yayın Pazarlama San. ve Tic. A.Ş.

4. Arlı, M., Şanlıer, N., Küçükkömürler, S., Ersoy, Y., Yaman, M., Özgen, L., Seren, S. ve Gümüş, H., (1981). Yiyecek Üretimi 2 (Food Production 2). İstanbul: Ya-Pa Yayın Pazarlama San. ve Tic. A.Ş.

5. Arslan, P., Bozkurt, N., Karaağaoğlu, N., Mercanlıgil, S. ve Erge Açık, S., (2001). Yeterli-Dengeli Beslenme ve Sağlıklı Zayıflama Rehberi (A Guide For Adequate–Balanced Nutrition And To Lose Weight Healthily). İstanbul:Özgür yayınları: 144.

6. Ateş, M., Ballar, E. ve Pekcan, G., (1986). “Sosyo-Ekonomik Yönden Faklı Semtlerde Yaşayan Ev Kadınlarının Besin Hazırlama, Pişirme ve Saklama Yöntemlerinin Saptanması” (Determination of Food Preparation, Cooking And Keeping Methods Of Housewives Living In Socio-economically Different Neighbourhoods). Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi: 15: 71-83.

7. Baysal, A., (2002).Genel Beslenme (General Nutrition). Ankara:

Hatiboğlu Yayınları, 9.Baskı.

8. Baysal, A., (2004). Beslenme (Nutrition). Ankara: Hatiboğlu Yayınları, 10.Baskı.

9. Birer, S., (1989). “Toplu beslenme yapılan kuruluşların tanımı, özellikleri ve beslenme servisi örgütünde çalışacak personelin seçimi, eğitimi ve kontrolü” (Definition And Characteristics Of Enterprises Where Collective Nutrition Is Practised And The Selection, Training And Supervising Of The Staff Working In The Nutrition Service Organization]. Toplu gıda tüketimi yapılan kuruluşlarda insan gücü ve verimliliğini artırmaya yönelik beslenme teknikleri. Ankara: MPM Yayınları, 2.Baskı.

10. Bulduk, S., (2004). Gıda Teknolojisi (Food Technology). Ankara:

Detay Yayıncılık, 2.Baskı.

11. Bulduk, S., (2005). Beslenme İlkeleri ve Mönü Planlama [Principles ff Nutrition And Planning The Menu]. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

12. Erkut, A., (1990). Vitaminler ve Biyokimyasal Olaylardaki Etkinlikleri [Vitamins And Their Efficacy İn Biochemical Events]. Samsun: Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Yayınları, No:62.

13. Gürman, Ü., (2002). Yemek Pişirme Teknikleri ve Uygulaması (Cooking Techniques And Applications). İstanbul: Ilıcak Matbaası.

14. Hasipek, S. ve Örmeci, Ö., (1988). Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi İdari Kadrosunda Çalışan Evli Kadınların Beslenme Bilgi Düzeyleri İle Yiyecek Hazırlama ve Pişirme Uygulamaları [Nutritional Knowledge Level And Food Preparation And Cooking Practices Of The Married Women Working In The Administrative

Jobs In Ankara University, Faculty Of Agriculture]. Ankara:

Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları: 1079.

15. Hazar, A., (2003). Turizm (Tourism). İstanbul: Ya-Pa Yayın Pazarlama San. ve Tic. A.Ş.

e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

16. Kavas, A., (2000). Sağlıklı Yaşam İçin Doğru Beslenme [Correct Nutrition For Healthy Living]. İstanbul: Literatür Yayınları:37, Birinci Baskı.

17. Kutluay, T., and Birer, S., (1980). Kurum Beslenmesi [Corporation Nutrition]. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı Yayınları: 8.

18. Sökmen, A., (2003). Ağırlama Endüstrisinde Yiyecek ve İçecek Yönetimi (Food And Beverages Management In The Entertainment Industry). Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

19. Sürücüoğlu, M.S., and Balgamış, F., (1986). Beslenme Eğitiminin Yiyecek Hazırlama ve Pişirme Yöntemlerine Etkisi [The Effects Of Nutrition Education On Food Preparation And Cooking Techniques].

Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, 16; ss:39-50.

20. Sürücüoğlu, M.S., Özçelik, Ö., and Çekal, N., (2001). İki Nesil Kadının (Anne-Kız) Beslenme Uygulamaları ve Beslenme Bilgi Düzeyleri Üzerinde Bir Araştırma [Research Into The Nutrition Practices And Nutritional Knowledge Levels Of Women Of Two Generations (Mother-Daughter)). I. Ulusal Yaşlılık Kongresi, ss: 60.

21. Yiğit, V., and Duran, T., (1997). Toplu beslenme teknolojisi 1 (Collective Nutrition Technology 1). İstanbul: Ekin Yayıncılık ve Pazarlama.



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