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«SOCIAL SCIENCES HOME ECONOMY Nurten Çekal Received: February 2007 University of Pamukkale Accepted: July 2007 ncekal © 2007 ...»

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e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy

2007, Volume: 2, Number: 3

Article Number: C0008



Received: February 2007 University of Pamukkale

Accepted: July 2007 ncekal@pamukkale.edu.tr

© 2007 0Hwww.newwsa.com Denizli-Turkiye




This study has been conducted among 148 cooks in order to determine the accuracy of the food preparation and cooking methods of the cooks employed in holiday villages, star hotels and official organizations. The research was conducted in the provinces of Aydın, Antalya, Denizli and Muğla, and the holiday towns affiliated to these provinces. Of these cooks, 38 worked in holiday villages, 78 worked in star hotels and 32 worked in the kitchens of official organizations.

Out of the 78 cooks in the star hotels, 16, 19 and 43 cooks worked in three-star, four-star and five-star hotels, respectively. Forty four point six percent (44.6%) of the cooks involved in the study were 30 years old or older and %40.5% of them were primary school graduates.

It has been determined that certain meals are cooked by applying wrong methods, and the rates are as follows: 98% cooked rice wrongly; 66.9% cooked milky desserts wrongly; 61.5% cooked pasta wrongly and 76.4% cooked leguminous seeds wrongly.

Keywords: Cooks, Food preparation and Cooking Methods, Nutrition.



ÖZET Bu çalışma tatil köyü, yıldızlı otel ve resmi kurumlarda çalışan aşçıların besin hazırlama ve pişirme yöntemlerinin doğruluğunu belirlemek amacı ile 148 aşçı üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırma Aydın, Antalya, Denizli ve Muğla illeri ve buralara bağlı tatil beldelerinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırma kapsamına alınan aşçıların 38’i tatil köyü, 78’i yıldızlı otel, 32’si ise resmi kurum mutfaklarında çalışmaktadır.

Otellerde çalışan 78 aşçıdan 16’sı 3 yıldızlı, 19’u 4 yıldızlı ve 43’ü 5 yıldızlı otellerde çalışmaktadır. Araştırma sonuçları aşçıların %44.6’sının 30 yaş ve daha alt yaş grubunda, %40.5'inin ise ilkokul mezunu olduğunu göstermiştir. Aşçıların %98'inin pilavı, %66.9'unun sütlü tatlıları, %61.5'inin makarnayı, %76.4'ünün kuru baklagilleri yanlış yöntemlerle pişirdikleri belirlenmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Aşçılar, Besin Hazırlama ve Pişir

–  –  –

1. INTRODUCTION (GİRİŞ) About one tenth of the community eats collectively in Turkey.

Places where collective nutrition takes place are organizations planning and managing the nutrition problems of a certain group of people from one center. Collective nutrition industry is a business branch that prepares food for people who eat outside their homes.

Accomodation industry involves food preparation and presentation services at places such as hotels, motels and entertainment facilities. Organizational nutrition services are those provided by some organizations and enterprises in a non-profit manner (old people’s homes, schools, hospitals and alike). Commercial nutrition services are business branches administered with the aim of profitmaking [21].

Food and beverages services are most important for the guests who will benefit from them. In the modern age, as the life standards of people change, their way of life also changes. People want the food and beverages services everywhere to be of high quality. As many social and political issues are spoken about and decided at dinner tables, the quality of the food and beverages services comfort those at the table and help people view events more optimistically. In this way, a high quality food and beverages service will please customers and affect their social relations and sometimes their family relations positively.

Food and beverages services are of importance for the providers as well. The customers who are glad with the services become a permanent customer, which, in return, helps to increase the sales of the enterprise that is to get income economically [2].

Turkey is one of the countries that have a high income from tourism. Tourism attracts tourists from other countries and allows foreign currency to flow in the country in this way. This entitles tourism to be seen as invisible exports.

A tourism product has the properties of a package product, which consists of the combination of several services such as transportation, accomodation, food and beverages and entertainment.

Any defects in any one of the rings that make up the tourism product will lower the quality of the total product. For example, in a perfect beach hotel, if the food and beverages services are of low quality, the visitors cannot be expected to be pleased [15].

In hotel enterprises, the most paying department following the income from room fees is the department of food and beverages by 25Hotels will make profits as long as they perform the food and beverages services well and support them with well-qualified human resources. Otherwise, their food and beverages departments will become one which causes big losses for the hotel [18].

In organizations where collective nutrition takes place, there is a sequence of procedures such as ordering, purchasing, storing, preparing, cooking and serving the food so that many people can eat together. In order for these procedures to be carried out in the desired way, they have to be administered by an organization. This kind of organization is called the nutrition service organization. The professionals who are employed in the nutrition service organization for cooking the food at required times and quantities are cooks. Most of the cooks in Turkey today are trained through apprenticeship, as there is not adequate number of educational institutes for training cooks. In order for the service to be conducted successfully, the cooks to be employed in the nutrition services of organizations should be at least primary school graduates and should have a cooking experience of five years. One of the cooks is selected as the chief cook and the supervision of cooks is provided in this way [9].

e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

Cooks prepare and cook foods in organizations where collective nutrition is applied. In addition to the taste and the appearance of the meal served, the methods applied during preparation and cooking are very important as the right way of doing so will prevent the loss of nutritive elements and thus provide adequate and balanced nutrition. When the basic principles of preparing, cooking and keeping foods are not known, there are considerable losses in nutritive elements. Inappropriate cooking methods cause the necessary nutritive elements in some foods to decrease in large amounts. As a result, in spite of the fact that adequate food has been taken in, as the required way of its consumption by the body is prevented, nutrition deficiency can be caused [8].



This study has been planned and conducted to determine the food preparation and cooking methods of cooks employed in holiday villages, star hotels and official organizations and to put forth the accuracy of these methods for consideration.

The research was conducted in the provinces of Aydın, Antalya, Denizli and Muğla, and the holiday towns affiliated to these provinces. One hundred and forty eight (148) cooks working in the kitchens of the holiday villages, star hotels and other organizations (old people’s homes, rest homes for the police, rest homes for teachers) were included in the study. Of these cooks, 38 worked in holiday villages, 78 worked in star hotels and 32 worked in the kitchens of official organizations. Out of the 78 cooks in the star hotels, 16, 19 and 43 cooks worked in three-star, four-star and fivestar hotels, respectively.

The research data were collected by the questionnaire method.

The results obtained were assessed by the SPSS 11.00 Statistics software and variance analysis was applied as the statistical way of analysis.


3.1. General Information About Cooks (Aşçılara İlişkin Genel Bilgiler) The cooks involved in the research were between 18 and 55 years old and the mean age was 34±0,6. Forty four point six percent (44.6%) of them were 30 years old or younger. When their educational status is examined, it can be seen that the highest rate is 40.5%, who are primary school graduates. This is followed by middle school graduate cooks by 29.7% and high school graduates at the same rate (29.7%). The cooks were asked whether they received any professional training and it was found that 63.5% did not. Those who received training stated that they attended apprenticeship centers. The mean length of

experience was found to be 13±0,6, and the details were as follows:

48% of the cooks had an experience of 10 years or less, 37.2% had an experience of 11 to 20 years and 14.8% had been in the profession for 21 or more years.

–  –  –

3.2. Food Preparation and Cooking Methods of the Cooks (Aşçıların Besin Hazırlama ve Pişirme Yöntemleri) Turkish people have a way of nutrition and kitchen based on grains. The basic nutrition resource is bread and other products made from wheat. Pasta, rice and pounded wheat (bulgur) are other kinds of meals often served at tables in addition to bread. “Pilav” (the meal obtained when rice is cooked) has an important place in the Turkish cuisine with their different kinds and rich varieties. In the traditional Turkish cuisine, pilav is usually served as the mean course or sometimes as a side dish, depending on its weight. In the international cuisine, rice is always used as garniture. Wrong cooking methods applied to food ingredients such as pasta, rice and bulgur result in the loss of various vitamins. Thus, they should be cooked by first releasing them into boiled water and then cooking until they absorb it. Frying rice at high temperatures causes vitamin B to be lost [7, 8, 11, and 13].

Table 2 shows the methods applied by the cooks when preparing and cooking foods. According to the table, 54.7% of the cooks soak rice before cooking and they pour away the soaking water before cooking, and then fry it, while 43.2% directly fry rice without soaking it in water. Both methods show that 98% of the cooks use a wrong method of cooking pilav. Only 2% of the cooks use the correct cooking method, which is cooking by “releasing rice into boiling water”.

Milky desserts have a special status in the Turkish cuisine. The cultural diversity can also be observed in this subject. Many varieties of traditional milky desserts have different characteristics with the original interpretation of the Turkish cuisine [13].

When they were asked about when they add sugar while making milky desserts, two-thirds (66.9%) of the cooks said that they add sugar while cooking the dessert, which is a wrong application. When foods containing reducing sugars (glucose, fructose and lactose) and proteins are cooked at high temperatures, the amino group in proteins e-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Social Sciences, 2, (3), C0008, 121-130.

Çekal, N.

and the hydroxil group in sugars combine to cause the Maillard reaction, and the Maillard reaction decreases the protein quality of the diet. For this reason, sugar should be added to the milky desserts either just before removing it off the heat or after doing so [3 and 11].

The proportion of the cooks who use the correct method of cooking milky desserts is higher in holiday villages (52.6%) and this ratio is followed by the cooks in star hotels by 26.9%. Twenty-five percent (25.0%) of the cooks employed in official organizations use the correct milky dessert way of cooking. Accordingly, the cooking practices of the holiday village cooks regarding milky desserts are more accurate and this difference is statistically significant (F=4.604 p0.05).

When milk is heated without paying attention to some points, its raw status disappears. This kind of milk is called cooked milk. The taste and the smell of cooked milk also differ. Milk heated haphazardly produces a smell of burning. This smell is brought about by the caramelization of the milk sugar and the burning of the albumin sticking in the bottom and the sides of the cooking pan because the albumin and the globulin, which are protein substances in the milk, denature when heated. Heating milk carelessly damages the distribution of the fat particles in it, i.e. its emulsion, so the cream formation strength of cooked milk changes. When milk is heated directly on heat, the heating should continue for five minutes after the milk starts boiling. Bubbling up of the milk does not mean that it is boiling.

Although some vitamin B in milk is lost through boiling, the values of its main rich ingredients such as the proteins, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A are not. However, if the boiling duration is extended, some undesired changes in milk happen. The most important of these changes is in its nutritive value, taste and smell. When the heat is above 100 degrees Celcius, because of the dissolvement of the milk sugar the colour also changes into a brownish one. If milk is heated for a long time, heat-resistant vitamins will also be lost. Moreover, essential amino acids, such as lysine, cysteine and methionine, in milk proteins will decrease [4 and 10].

When the methods of cooking milk that is bought raw from open sources are considered, the cooks who boil milk for more than 20 minutes take the first rank in order of the proportions (35.8%). This ratio is followed by those who boil milk for five minutes and ten minutes after the cream level is bubbled up (29.7% and 22.3%, respectively). The rate of the cooks who boil milk for 20 minutes is 12.2%. It has been determined that 70.3% of the cooks apply a wrong method of boiling milk.

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