WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 22 |

«University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Committee of Experts on Dairy Manure Management September 2003 February 2004, ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

The eight dairying counties in the San Joaquin Valley (i.e. Fresno, Kern, Kings, Kings, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare) are major production areas of alfalfa hay in the state (Table 7.12). According to the summary of the County Agricultural Commissioners’ Crop Reports (California Agricultural Statistics Service, 2003), the gross value of 2001 – 02 year alfalfa hay production in the San Joaquin Valley amounted to $534 million. For the same period, the gross value of alfalfa hay produced by Southern California counties (i.e. Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, and San Bernardino) was $205 million. Alfalfa hay produced in Southern California is mostly for consumption in the Chino-Corona and Hemet-San Jacinto dairy areas, where approximately 200,000 dairy cows are located. The remainder is exported to dairies in Arizona.

Generally, feeds for dairy cows are produced on nearby farmlands. For dairies in the Central Valley, some of the feed, especially alfalfa hay, may be produced and imported from outside the Central Valley. However, there are few data available on the extent of the importation. Based on the harvested acreage of hay (including green chops) and grains (corn, oat, and wheat) as reported in the 2002 County Agricultural Commissioners’ Data, it is reasonable to assume that the majority of the feed ingredients used by Central Valley dairies are raised on farmlands in the Central Valley (California Agricultural Statistical Service, 2003).

Table 7-3: Gross Values of Alfalfa Hay Production in San Joaquin Valley and Southern California Counties in 2001 – 02.

–  –  –

In addition to alfalfa, San Joaquin Valley counties have significant acreages of other crops that are major ingredients in dairy animal feed, such as corn silage, corn, winter forage, wheat, almond, tomato, citrus, etc. The production acreages in Fresno, Kern, and Merced counties are used as examples (Tables 7.13 to 7.15). Patterns in other counties are similar. They clearly illustrate the extent of local feed production for dairy cows in the San Joaquin Valley.

Alfalfa hay is fed not only to dairy cows but also to horses and other ruminant animals.

According to Dr. Daniel H. Putnam (CE Agronomy Specialist, UC Davis), California has a deficit in alfalfa production and imports probably 3 to 10% of its needs. While anecdotal evidence exists, there are no data to indicate the extent of the forage importation into the San Joaquin Valley. Small feed amounts may be imported to cover seasonal and temporary shortages in supply. We do not expect the imported amounts, especially alfalfa hay, to be significant as the shipping costs and distances will be considerable compared to local production. Imperial Valley and Palos Verde Valley are the closest major forage production areas outside of San Joaquin Valley. One-way shipping distance from these production areas will be 500 miles or longer.

Despite significant local productions, some grains (especially corn) and protein meals (such as soybean and canola meal) for dairy feeds may be imported from the Mid-West and Canada.

These two ingredients typically constitute 10 to 15% of the dry matter in the feed while forage typically is less than 50% of the dry matter in the feeds. The mineral contents of grains and protein meals are considerably lower than those of the forages. For example, the whole corn contains 0.03, 0.37, 0.12, 0.03, and 0.05% of Ca, K, S, Na, and Cl, respectively. As a result, the salt contribution of the grains and protein meals in the dairy feed will be far less significant than the forages and agricultural by-products which are locally produced.

Table 7-4: Production Acreages of Selected Crops in Fresno County in 2002.

–  –  –

At the regional scale, it therefore appears that when dairy manure is applied on croplands, the overall salt balance of the Central Valley appears is unaffected. Harvested plants absorb dissolved minerals from the soil and the land application of dairy manure simply redistributes them.

Despite the apparent regional balance, two additional issues must be considered, both of which highlight the localized increase in salt load when comparing animal farming systems (including

dairies) to other farming systems:

(1) The production of forage crops for consumption by Central Valley animals replaces the production of food and fiber crops for human consumption. Most foods and fibers are exported from the Central Valley (salt export), while forage crops remain in the Central Valley. Hence, for each animal unit in the Central Valley, there is a net increase in salt that remains in the Central Valley (via excretion and land application).

(2) The concentration of animals in dairies and other animal farming operations means that the salt loading to land is concentrated in the vicinity of dairies, where the manure is most likely to be land- applied, whereas the forage crop production (from where the salts originate) occurs over a much larger land area and is more dispersed.

As a result, salt loading in dairy areas are expected to increase (relative to non-dairy areas) and, over the long run, the salinity of groundwater underneath these areas may be affected.

Table 7-6: Production Acreages of Selected Crops in Merced County in 2002.

–  –  –





7.6 Summary The excretion of salts can be expected to vary dramatically due to on-farm management decisions and practices. Regardless, daily consumption and excretion of salts will be dramatically lower for dry vs. lactating stock, although even this can be affected by management decisions.

From a dietary point of view, exact salt excretion data are currently unavailable except for Na+, K+, Cl-, and total N excretion. Excluding uncontrolled provision of salt to lactating dairy cows, a summary of six groups of cows on three commercial California dairies suggests that the average lactating dairy cow will excrete 1.29 lb (585 g) day-1 of Na+-K+-Cl- salts and the average dry cow will excrete 0.63 lb (287 g) day-1 (also Na+-K+-Cl- salts only). Assuming an annual division of 305 days lactating and 60 days dry, the average dairy cow will excrete 427 lb (194 kg) year-1 of Na+-K+-Cl- salts. That these values are less than values reported by the 1973 UC Committee of Consultants Water Quality Task Force reflects the fact that comparable data for other salts (Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-) are not available.

Analysis of manure data, geochemical modeling, and observations of groundwater recharge quality in the San Joaquin Valley dairies suggests that the salinity contribution (defined as the mass of total dissolved solids) from manure, under proper nutrient management practices that seek to maximize the use of lagoon water as a source of fertilizer, is on the order of 1786 – 3572 lbs ac-1 yr-1 (2000 – 4000 kg ha-1 yr-1). For comparison, the salt loading from irrigation water alone, depending on the source of the irrigation water, is on the order of 357 lbs ac-1 yr-1 (400 kg ha-1 yr-1) for lower salinity water sources (e.g., Sierra Nevada watersheds) to nearly 4,000 kg ha-1 yr-1 for higher salinity water sources (e.g., State Water Project).

At the regional scale, dairies are only one of several sources of salinity to the Central Valley’s groundwater and surface water supply. Locally, they add significant additional salinity to bgroundwater. The long-term impacts from dairies as well as those from other salinity sources (municipal wastewater treatment plants, food-waste dischargers, etc.) are still not well understood. Increasing salinity in California’s waters is an issue that must be dealt with as part of an integrated long-range water resources management plan.

References

Arogo, J., P. W. Westerman, A. J. Heber, W. P. Robarge, and J. J. Classen. 2001. Ammonia Emission form Animal Feeding Operations. White Paper prepared for National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 63 pages. CD copy distributed by MWPS (MidWest Plan Service, A Foundation of Knowledge), http://mwpshq.org/ American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1990. ASCE Manual 71, Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management: Appendix Table A.4, 1990.

Blanchard, C.L., and K.A. Tonnessen, 1994. Precipitation chemistry measurements from the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program, 1985-1990. Atmos. Environ. 27A:1755-1763.

Bouldin, D.R., S.D. Klausner, and W.S. Reid. 1984. Use of nitrogen in manure. p. 221-248 In R.D. Hauck (ed.) Nitrogen in crop production. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.

Broadbent, F.E. and A.B. Carlton. 1979. Field trials with isotopes – plant and soil data for Davis and Kearney sites. p. 433-465. In Pratt, P.F. Nitrate in effluents from irrigated lands. Final report to the National Science Foundation. PB-300582, US Dept. of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

Campbell-Mathews, M. 2001 Timing of Nitrogen Uptake in Corn and Winter Forage.

Proceedings, California Alfalfa and Forage Symposium, 17-19 December, 2001, Modesto, CA, UC Cooperative Extension, University of California, Davis 95616. (See http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu; http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/5049/6370.pdf) Campbell-Mathews, M. 2003 Using Winter Forages for Dairy Nitrogen Management.

Proceedings, California Alfalfa and Forage Symposium, 17-19 December, 2003, Monterey, CA, UC Cooperative Extension, University of California, Davis 95616. (See http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu).

Campbell-Mathews, M., 2004. Principles of recycling dairy manures through forage crops.

Proceedings, National Alfalfa and Forage Symposium, 14-15 December, 2004, San Diego, CA, http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu. 8 pages.

Campbell-Mathews, C., C. Frate, T. Harter, and S. Sather. 2001a. Lagoon water composition, sampling and field analysis. Proceedings, 2001 California Plant and Soil Conference, California Chapter of American Society of Agronomy, California Soil and Plant Conference, Fresno, February 7-8, 2001, pp. 43-51, 2001.

Campbell-Mathews, M., E. Swenson, T. Harter, and R.D. Meyer. 2001b. Matching Dairy Laggoon Nutrient Application to Crop Nitrogen Uptake Using A Flow meter and control valve.

ASAE Paper Number 01-2105. 2110 ASAE Annual International Meeting, American Society of Agricultural Engineering. Sacramento, California. July 30 – August 1, 2001.

Campbell-Mathews, M. 2003. Using winter forage for dairy nitrogen management. In:

Proceedings, Alfalfa and Forage Symposium, December 17 – 19, 2003. Monterey, California (http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu) Castillo, A. R., J.E.P.Santos and J.H. Kirk, 2005. Feed Conversion and efficiency of NPK utilization in lactating dairy cows, Paper #W252, Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, July 24-28, 2005, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Chang, A.C., G. Yamashita, J. B. Johanson, K. Aref, and D. C. Baier. 1974. Quality Degradation of Dairy Washwater. Trans. ASAE 17:757 – 760.

Chang, A. C., J. M. Rible, 1975. Particle size distribution of livestock wastes. Proc. 3rd International Symposium on Livestock Wastes. pp. 339 343.

CPHA (California Plant Health Association) 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook, Ninth Ed.

Interstate Publishers, Inc. Danville, IL, 356 pages.

Coppock, R. and Meyer, R.D. 1980. Nitrate losses from irrigated cropland. Leaflet 21136. Div.

Agric. Sciences. Univ. of Calif. Oakland, CA and Davis, CA.

Dou, Z., R.A.Kohn, J.D.Ferguson, R.C.Boston, and J.D.Newbold. 1996. Managing nitrogen on dairy farms: An integrated approach. 1. Model description. J. Dairy Sci. 79:2071-2080.

Francis, D.D., J.S. Schepers, and M.F. Vigil. 1993. Post-anthesis nitrogen loss from corn. Agron.

J. 85:659-663.

Grunes, D. L. 1973. Grass tetany of cattle and sheep. pp 113-139. In: A. G. Matches (ed) Antiquality components of forages. CSSA Special Publication No. 4. Crop Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI.

Hanway, J. J. 1962. Corn growth and composition in relation to soil fertility: II. Uptake of N, P, and K and their distribution in different plant parts during the growing season. Agron. J. 54:217Hanson, B., L. Schwankl, and A. Fulton. 1999. Scheduling Irrigations: When and How Much Water to Apply. DANR Publication 3396.

Harter, T., H. Davis, M.C. Mathews and R.D. Meyer. 2002. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops. J. of Contaminant Hydrology 55 (3-4), pp. 287-315.

Harter, T. and S. Talozi, 2004. A simple, inexpensive dialysis sampler for small diameter monitoring wells, Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Fall 2004, 97-105.

Karlen, D. L. B. L. Flannery and E. J. Sadler. 1988. Aerial accumulation and partitioning of nutrients by corn. Agron. J. 80:232-242.

Koelsch, R. 2001. Whole Farm Nutrient Planning. Lesson 2. Livestock and Poultry Environmental Stewardship Curriculum. MidWest Plan Service, Iowa State University.

Lowrance, R., J.C. Johnson, Jr., G.L. Newton, and R.G. Williams. 1998. Denitrification from soils of a year-round forage production system fertilized with liquid dairy manure. J. Environ.

Qual. 27:1504-1511.

Meisinger, J.J. and G.W. Randall. 1991. Estimating nitrogen budgets for soil-crop systems. p.

85-124. In R.F. Follett, D.R. Keeney, and R.M. Cruse (eds.) Managing nitrogen for groundwater quality and farm profitability. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Madison, WI.

Meyer, J. L., R. S. Rauschkolb, and E. Olson. 1976. Dairy Manure Utilization and Field Application Rates. University of California Cooperative Extension, Technical Report. (source unknown) Meyer, D. and P.H. Robinson. 2002. Template for production area nutrient mass balance.

Department of Animal Science. Available from authors.

Meyer, D., J. Harner, W. Powers. 2003. Manure technologies for today and tomorrow. Western Dairy Management Conference.

Meyer, D., J.P. Harner, E.E. Tooman, C. Collar. 2004. Evaluation of weeping wall efficiency of solid liquid separation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 20: 349-354.

Mutters, R., 1995. Atmospheric deposition to agricultural soil. California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board Research Division. Final Report, 93-334.

Nakamura, K., T. Harter, Y. Hirono, H. Horino, and T. Mitsuno, 2004. Assessment of root zone nitrogen leaching as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices. Vadose Zone J.

3:1353-1366.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 22 |


Similar works:

«Kenya: A Country of Contrasts By Johan Woxenius September 2011 Kenya is defined by its immense contrasts. The country’s natural habitat ranges from sandy beaches and rain forests to savannahs crowded with exotic animals and mountains with glaciers to semi-arid bush land and arid deserts. People are divided into very different tribes, and income levels vary beyond comprehension. Telecommunications are highly developed, whereas Kenya does not boast about its manufacturing sector. Agriculture...»

«Dairy Birthe Lassen Dairy production in South Africa impressions Country Report 2012/1 Dairy Production in South Africa – impressions Acknowledgements My thanks go to the European Dairy Farmers who co-financed the journey to South Africa and the participation at the World Dairy Summit (IDF 2012) in Cape Town. Birthe J. Lassen Dairy farming in a free market: Impressions from South Africa For the quick reader: 2,6 billion kg of milk per year/2,300 dairy farmers/average herd size: 300 cows per...»

«1 TESTA BRANCA, O TROPEIRO Alfred Reitz* Aconteceu no altiplano, no oeste de Santa Catarina. Desencilhei meu cavalo diante da pequena venda rural. Ao perguntar ao comerciante, um sírio, onde ficava a entrada do pasto, ele apontou para um imenso portão de varas, logo atrás do puxado. „Qual o tamanho do pasto? Fechado?” „Dez alqueires. quatro arames em todo redor”. Dez alqueires! Uma área imensa. Diabos! Pela manhã bem cedinho provavelmente teria que procurar muito para achar meu...»

«Sundaresan School of Animal Husbandry and Dairying SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES (Formerly Allahabad Agriculture Institute) (Deemed to-be-University) Allahabad – 211007 Course Structure of B.Sc. Animal Husbandry & Dairying [now B.Sc. (H) Dairying] SEMESTERI Course code Course title L-T-P Credits CSIT 301 Introduction to Computer Application 2-0-2 3 MAS 303 Elementary Mathematics-I 2-0-0 2 LNG 300 English and Basic Technical writing 3-0-0 3 MBFT 349...»

«18th International Farm Managment Congress Methven, Canterbury, New Zealand IFMA18 – Theme 3 Farm Management CANTERBURY DAIRYING A STUDY IN LAND USE CHANGE AND INCREASING PRODUCTION M.C. Pangborn and K.B.Woodford Agricultural Management Group, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647 New Zealand Abstract The purpose of this research was to quantify the extent of the increase in dairy farming in Canterbury, New Zealand, and to examine factors that have led to the changes in land use and production. In...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.