«Sundaresan School of Animal Husbandry and Dairying SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES (Formerly Allahabad Agriculture ...»
Utilization of whey products: Whey protein concentrates: methods of isolation with basic principles involved, physico-chemical properties. Functional properties and food applications.
Lactose: methods for industrial production, refining, uses and hydrolysis of lactose.
Butter milk processing: condensed butter milk, dried butter milk.
Utilization of butter milk products.
Membrane technology for effective utilization of byproducts.
Ghee residue: composition, processing and utilization.
Management aspects of manufacture and newer applications to enhance profitability. Nutritional characteristics of by-products.
1. Manufacture of edible casein from cow and buffalo milk.
2. Manufacture of rennet casein.
3. Manufacture of sodium caseinate.
4. Manufacture of calcium caseinate.
5. Manufacture of co-precipitates.
6. Isolation of whey proteins by cold precipitation technique.
7. Manufacture of whey protein concentrate by ultrafiltration.
8. Manufacture of whey drinks.
9. Manufacture of dried whey.
10. Manufacture of lactose.
11. Membrane concentration of skim milk, whey, etc.
12. Incorporation of whey protein concentrate in processed cheese foods.
Dairy Chemistry Importance of chemical quality control in dairy industry; setting up quality control laboratories and testing facilities; mobile testing laboratories.
Sampling procedures; labelling of samples for analysis; choice of analytical tests for milk and milk products for chemical analysis; instrumental methods of analysis.
Calibration of dairy glassware including butyrometers. pipettes, burettes. hydrometers. Lactometers and freezing point thermometer.
Preparation and standardization of reagents required in the analysis of milk and milk products.
Dairy effluents and their recycling.
Prediction of shelf-life behaviour and quality assurance in milk and milk products.
Dairy Microbiology Selection of tests for microbiological analysis of milk and milk products and "their interpretations Rapid methods of milk testing; non culture methods.
Organizational aspects of microbiological quality of dairy products.
Role of various agencies in the formulation of standards and controlling quality of dairy products. Various microbiological standards of BIS. PFA, ISO, CCFS for dairy products.
Quality of dairy water supplies and purification procedure and waste disposal. Treatment and disposal and waste water and effluent.
Dairy products borne infections and intoxications and of public health significance: Microbial toxins in dairy products and their significance in public health.
Detection and control measures.
Indicator organisms and their significance in dairy products: faecal and non-faecal coliform including faecal streptococci, total gram negative bacteria including salmonella and shigella group.
Predictions of shelf life behaviour and quality assurance in UHT processed/sterilized milk and milk products.
Application of HACCP in dairy industry.
Practicals Dairy Chemistry
1. Calibration of dairy glassware such as pipette, burette, volumetric flasks, hydrometer, butyrometers.
2. Preparation and standardization of dairy reagents such as acids alkalies Na2Sp3' AgN03, Fehling's, EDTA solutions etc.
3. Detection of adulterants, preservatives and neutralizers in milk and milk products.
4. Chemical analysis of permissible additives used in milk and dairy products.
5. Chemical analysis of detergents and sanitizers.
7. Testing the amyl alcohol used for fat determination.
1. Evaluation of common sanitizing agents used in dairy plants by
2. Bacteriological quality analysis of dairy water (a) total viable counts - SPC (b) total coliform counts - "MPN method
3. Determination of BOD in dairy waste
4. Microbiological tests for dairy effluent
5. Detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products
6. Detection of staphylococcal toxin in dairy products.
7. Detection of faecal and non faecal coliform and faecal streptococci in dairy products.
8. Detection of total gram negative bacteria, salmonella and shigella ? groups in dairy products.
9. Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products.
Feed Technology- Definition, significance. Feed industry- development in India, present condition and constraints faced by feed manufactures in India, feed manufacturing-feasibility of feed plants, Present status of feed resources, utilization of agro-industrial by products, processing of feeds- necessity, methods, advantages and their effect on nutritive value of feeds, feed mills, anti-nutritional factors. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients- factors affecting food value and deterioration during storage, Quality control of feeds.
Processing of feeds
AHD - 505 SWINE PRODUCTION 3-0-2=4
Scope and importance of swine farming, statistics of swine industry Important breeds of pigs in India, Guidelines for selection of sow and boar, Guidelines for normal reproduction in pigs, detection of heat in sows Feeding management of pigs Management practices for hogs, Housing of hogs, castration, management of sow before and after farrowing, Pig fenders, care and management of piglets at and after birth, Pig wallows, management at breeding (flushing), Needle teeth, preventive measures against common diseases of pigs.
Pork: Types and composition, Economics of pig farming.
ENVS- 415 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES- I 2+0+0= 2 1: Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Definition, scope and importance, need for public awareness.
• Concept of an ecosystem.
• Structure and function of an ecosystem.
• Producers, consumers and decomposers.
• Energy flow in the ecosystem.
• Ecological succession.
• Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.
• Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystems :- a) Forest ecosystem, b) Grassland ecosystem,c) Desert ecosystem, d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
3. Social Issues and the Environment
• From Unsustainable to Sustainable development
• Urban problems related to energy
• Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
• Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case Studies
• Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions.
• Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Case Studies.
• Wasteland reclamation.
• Consumerism and waste products.
• Environment Protection Act.
• Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
• Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act
• Wildlife Protection Act
• Forest Conservation Act
• Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation.
• Public awareness.
Managerial functions: planning, organizing, staffing, budgeting, coordinating, directing and controlling.
Responsibility, authority, power, decentralization of authority.
Human & organizational behavior: theory x & theory.
Value system of Indian managers.
Human resource management :concepts & principles. difference between HRM & personnel management.
Human resource policy: procurement, recruitment and selection. transfer & promotions.
Job enrichment & job enhancement.
Performance appraisal, job evaluation.
Grievances handling system, moral & productivity.
Motivation - meaning, characteristics, content theories.
Leadership - traits, styles, grid, leadership effectiveness.
• General observations of animal suffering from Ailments.
• Managemental practices to check the incidences of common ailments.
• Ailments of digestive organs: chocking, Impaction of rumen, Constipation, Diarrhoea, Dysentry, Stomatitis, and Tympanitis their causes, symptoms, control and treatment measures.
• Other Ailments: Pneumonia and Bronchitis, Epistaxis, Absces, Sore eye, Sore feet /foot rot, Coccidiosis, Food poisoning, Scalds and Burns.
• Ailments associated with reproductive organs: Abortion, Retention of Placenta, Prolapes of Vagina and Uterus, Brucellosis vibriosis, Trichomoniosis, Vagenitis, Metritis and Dystokia.
• Ailments associated with mammary system: Dermetitis, Chopped teat, Teat wounds, Teat closure, Hard milker, Leaky teats, Teat fistula and Milk fever.
• Ailments of calves: Calf scour, Calf Pneumonia, Milk Tateny, Sore mouth, Naval ill and Paratyphoied.
• Common symptoms and diagnosis of ailments under field condition.
• Securing and treatment of a sick animals.
• Treatment of animal suffering from food poisoning.
• Handling a case of retention of Placenta.
• Handling a case of Dystokia.
• Naval treatment.
• Agglutination test to Diagnose Brucellosis in breeding animals.
• Collection of Vulval discharge or perpetual wash to diagnose diseases of reproductive system.
• Preparation of common Prescriptions used in the treatment of simple ailments of animals.
(Ointments, Liniments, Lotions, Powders, Oral mixture etc.)
• Handling a case of foot rot, shoeing, trimming of hooves etc.
AHD 507 BREEDS AND BREEDING 2-0-2=3 General introduction, Important breeds of dairy animals:- Their origin, characteristics and utility, systems and methods of breeding of different dairy farm animals- Cows, Buffaloes, Sheep, Goat, Pigs and Poultry. Culling of layers in poultry. Construction of sire indices. Inbreeding coefficient and its application, limitations etc.
• Familiarity of common terms used in breeds and breeding.
• Study of various economic traits in Zebu, Crossbreds and buffalo breeds.
• Study of records maintained in a cattle breeding Farm.
• Preparation of history and pedigree sheets.
• Selection of animals based on history and pedigree records.
• Preparation of sire indices and calculations.
• Study of Inbreeding coefficient.
AHD 508 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY 2-0-2=3 cell and their function physiology Animal cell-different organelle of of system of ruminant and nonruminant endocrine system-Role of hormones in lactation and reproduction,physiology of reproductive system of farm animals adaptation of farm animals,factors affecting productive and reproductive efficiency of animals.
General introduction: Importance and significance of buffalo rearing – in India and related statistics.
Breeds and breeding of buffaloes:
Important breeds of buffalo in India, Breeding management of buffaloes, Management of buffaloes to mitigate heat stress.
33 Feed and feeding of buffaloes: Nutrients and their functions, classification of feeds and fodder, Nutrients requirement in buffaloes Management of buffaloes: Rearing and management of Calves’ management and care of milking herd, watering and wallowing Routine management practices viz: making disbudding castration etc. in buffaloes. Prevention of common diseases in buffaloes. Common buffalo’s calf aliments. Nutritional diseases in buffaloes Practical
1. Identification of various tools used – in Buffaloes management
2. Clearing and disinflation of barn
3. Wallowing and bathing buffaloes
4. Identification of feeds and fodder
5. Computation of ration
6. Feed distribution to buffaloes
7. Identification of buffaloes
8. Handling and leading of buff
1. Natural Resources :
Renewable and non-renewable resources :
Natural resources and associated problems.
a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forest and tribal people.
b) Water resources : Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems.
c) Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies.
d) Food resources : World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and over-grazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.
sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies.
f) Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.
• Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
• Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
2. Biodiversity and its conservation
• Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.
• Biogeographical classification of India
• Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values
• Biodiversity at global, National and local levels.
• Inida as a mega-diversity nation