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«Sundaresan School of Animal Husbandry and Dairying SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES (Formerly Allahabad Agriculture ...»

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Application of gene manipulation of various characters in dairy starters Protoplast and tissue culture Application of biotechnology in medicine, agriculture, food and dairy industry environment and pollution control.

Concepts development of single cell protein and uses.

Genetic improvement of dairy starters and uses.


1. Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria.

2. Restriction analysis of DNA.

3. Preparation of competent cell.

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Status of traditional milk products in India. Place of milk and milk products in the dietary regime in Indian population.

Khoa: classification of types, methods of manufacture, packaging and preservation. Factors affecting yield of khoa. Physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage of khoa. Mechanization in manufacture of khoa.

Confections made from khoa - Burfi, Peda, Lal peda, Milk cake, Kalakand, Gulbjamun, compositional profile, manufacture practices. Nutritive value of khoa and khoa-based confections. Rabri, Malai, Khurchan, Basundhi: Product identification, process description, factors affecting yield. Rheological changes during manufacture

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Chhana-based sweets. Mechanization of manufacturing process.

Paneer: product description, methods of manufacture, packaging and preservation. Prospects for mechanization of paneer manufacturing/packaging process through innovative approaches and integration with newly emerging technologies. Physico-chemical changes during manufacture and storage. Nutritive value of paneer.

Shrikhand : chakka, product description, method of manufacture, small scale and industrial, packaging and preservation aspects. Shrikhand- product description, method of manufacture, small scale and industrial, packaging and preservation aspect. Physico-chemical changes and quality assurance during manufacture and storage. Process/product innovation - spray dried form of shrikhand.

Kheer and Pysam : product description, methods of manufacture, innovations in manufacturing/~ packaging processes. Interaction between milk and cereal constituents, rheological changes during manufacture and storage. In-can sterilization of kheer.

Cost of manufacture and storage of traditional milk products Practicals

1. Preparation of khoa from cow, buffalo, concentrated and dried milk.

2. Analysis of khoa for total solids, moisture, fat, acidity.

3. Preparation of kheer.

4. Preparation of chhana from cow and buffalo milk and mixed milk.

5. Preparation of paneer from cow and buffalo milk and mixed milk.

6. Proximate analysis of khoa, chhana and paneer.

7. Preparation of misti dahi, chhaka and shrikhand.

8. Preparation of khoa, chhana based sweets.

9. Field trip.

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Basic refrigeration cycles and concepts: standard rating refrigerating machines, elementary vapour compression refrigeration cycle with reciprocating, rotary and centrifugal compressors.

Theoretical vapour compression cycle, departure from theoretical vapour compression cycle, representation on T -4 and p-h diagrams, mathelnatical analysis of vapour compression refrigeration system.

Refrigerants: primary and secondary refrigerants, common refrigerants (ammonia, freon), brine, their properties and comparison.

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Refrigeration equipments: compressor, condenser, evaporator, cooling tower, spray pond; basic elements of design, construction, operation and maintenance, balancing of different components of the system.

Refrigeration controls: low side and high side float valves, capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve, automatic expansion valve, solenoid valve, high pressure and low pressure cutouts, thermostat, overload protector, common defects and remedies.

Refrigeration piping: purpose, materials, joint and fittings, water and brine pipe size selection. Absorption refrigeration systems: simple vapour absorption refrigeration systems, practical absorption system, refrigerant absorbent combinations absorption cycle analysis.

Psychometry: definition, properties of air-vapour mixtures, psychometric charts, processes involving air vapor mixtures, dehumidification, humidifiers, humidity measurements, humidity control.

Cooling load calculations: types of loads, design conditions for air cooling, air conditioning loads.

Cold storage: types of cold storage, types of loads in cold storage, construction of cold storage insulating materials and vapour barriers.

Practicals l. To study tools used in installation of a refrigeration plant including charging and detection of leaks.

2. To study different parts and learn operation of bulk milk cooler.

3. To study different parts and learn the operation of refrigeration plant/ice plant using ammonia refrigerant.

4. To study different parts and learn the operation of a vapour absorption refrigeration plant.

5. To dismantle and assemble an open compressors and a sealed unit.

6. To study different parts and refrigeration controls of the following:

(a) Refrigerator (b) water cooler (c) deep freezer (d) compare their cooling coils and other systems.

7. To find out the rating (cooling rate) at different suction temperatures (temperature differences) and air handling capacity of the air-cooling unit.

8. To plot the practical refrigeration cycle on a pressure enthalpy diagram and to compare it with theoretical refrigeration cycle.

9. Study different parts and operation of a (a) air washer, (b) room cooler, (a) air conditioner, (d) chemical dehumidifiers, and (e) cooling.

10. To plot psychometric process: sensible heating & cooling, dehumidification & cooling and heating & humidification.

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Farm machinery and power: Conventional country tools & implements type, principal parts & functionsdeshi plough, patella, hoe, sickles, Khurpi etc, yokes for desi bullocks, crossbred bullocks.

Internal combustion engine and its principal parts and principles of operations: Agricultural Tractor and its principal parts maintenance and selection, driving the tractor, common troubles and remedies terminology.

Associated Implements in mechanized farming: Functions, principal parts and maintenance of board and disc plough, harrows, and cultivators, seed drill chaff cutter, weighing machine and its principal parts types maintenance. Milking machine principal parts, operation and maintenance.

1. Farm building- principles of site selection, layout farm building, factors involved in assembling, lighting and ventilation requirements, importance of ventilation in dairy farm building factors involved in constructive features for temperatures and ventilation control, maintenance of building, feed go downsconstructional features, storage space and space requirement, damp and rodent proofing ventilation, anticorrosive measures, disinfection, fumigation cleaning.

2. Bio –Gas Plant: Need for drainage and sewage in dairy farm, disposal and cattle hardware, biogas plant constructional and operational features, uses of biogas plant, products and by products and utilization.

3. Feed grinding and mixing machines: Constructional features, maintenance and improvements in trailors and animal drawn vehicles, functions, types, milk van tanker-types, constructional features and maintenance.

4. Meteorology: Introduction to agricultural meteorology, importance, study of meteorological instruments in an Agr met observatory.

5. Fencing: uses, types, constructional features, estimation, periodical checks and maintenance.


(a)Identification of principal parts and practice on starting stopping- petrol engine, diesel engine and tractor.

(b) Identification of principal parts and hitching to a tractor- mould board and disc ploughs and disc harrow.

(c)Chaff cutter- principal parts and their functions, operations of chaff cutter- milking machine- principal parts and their functions and operations.

(d) Phase induction motor with star delta and their functions, demonstration of operation, calculation of discharge.

(e)Acquaintance with carpentry tools- their functions and operations.

(f) Acquaintance with soldering, gas, and arc welding equipment their functions and operations.

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Concept of marketing: functions of marketing; concepts of marketing management; scope of marketing management; marketing management process: concept of marketing-mix, elements of marketing-mix.

Market structure and consumers buying behavior: concept of market structure, marketing environmentmicro and macro environments; consumers buying behavior, consumerism.

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Product policy and planning: product mix; product line; product life cycle, new product development process, product brand, packaging, service decisions, marketing channel decisions. Retailing, whole selling and distribution.

Pricing decisions: price determination and pricing policy of milk products in organized and unorganized sectors of dairy industry.

Promotion mix decisions.

Advertising: how advertising works, deciding advertising objectives, deciding advertising budget, deciding advertising message, media planning.

Personal selling. Publicity. Sales promotion.

Food and dairy products marketing.

International marketing. and international trade, salient features of international marketing. Composition & direction of Indian exports.

International marketing environment.

Deciding which & how to enter international market.

Exports - direct exports, indirect exports, licensing, joint ventures, direct investment & internationalization process.

Deciding marketing programme: product, promotion, price, distribution channels. Deciding the market organization. World trade organization (WTO).

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Concept of financial accounting; its subject matter, basic principles involve in accounting, classification and importance. Concept of Accounting procedure; Journal, Definition; Role of debates Concept of Double Entry System; meaning, advantages of Double Entry System Ledger: Its concept, necessity, types ruling, difference between Journal and Ledger Cash book; Meaning, types of cash, advantages, difference and similarities with ledger. Trial balance; its meaning, definition, objective and characteristics of Trial balance, limitation etc.

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AHD -409 ANIMAL HEALTH & HYGIENE 3-0-2 =4 Observation on sick vs. healthy animals, sanitation.

Immunity – Types, modes and significance.

Immunization and vaccination of dairy cattle.

General preventive measures against infectious and contagious diseases.

Important diseases of dairy cattle their etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and control (H.S, B.Q, F.M.D, Anthrax, R.P, Brucellosis, Vibriosis, Trichomoniosis, Tick fever, Surra, and Mastits).

Animal quarantine.

Euthanasia of animals.


• Identification of veterinary tools and drugs.

• Estimation of pulse, respiration rate and body temperature.

• Lifting of legs, casting and securing of animals.

• Cleaning and disinfection of dairy farm.

• Diagnosis and treatment of sick animals.

• Faecal examination.

• Vaccination of dairy cattle.

• Collection of blood samples.

• Methods of administration of drugs.

• Prescription writing, common prescription in veterinary practices.

AHD -410 MEAT TECHNOLOGY 3-0-2 =4 Composition and nutritive value of meat tissues.

Abattoir Management and structure Ante and post mortem examination Factors affecting meat quality Microbial and other deteriorative changes in meat and their identification.

Methods of slaughtering, Role of meat and products in Human nutrition.

Meat cutting, Packaging and transportation.

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Basic concepts-wants goods, wealthy, utility, Consumption; demand and supply;

Consumer behaviour, Law of diminishing marginal utility Law of equimarginal utility, concepts of cardinal and ordinal utility.

Theory of Demand – Law of Demand, Demand Schedule, Demand function.

Determination of demand, individual consumer demand and market demand, demand forecasting. Elasticity of demand, Income elasticity and cross elasticity.

Consumer’s surplus Theory of Production-concepts of firm and industry.

Basic factors of production and their roles, production function for a single product, nature of production.

Laws of Returns. Concepts of costs, fixed and variable costs, short-run and long-run costs, average and marginal costs. Economics & Dis-economies of scale.

Pricing and output under different market situations, market price and normal price, Price determination under perfect competition.

Monopoly, Oligopoly and Monopolistic competition.

Product pricing policies, pricing Decisions and pricing practices.

Normal Income, GDP, GNP, NNP, Disposable personal Income, Per Capita Income, Inflation.

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Status, availability and utilization of dairy by-products in India and abroad. Associated economic and pollution problems. Physico-chemical characteristics of whey, buttermilk and ghee residue.

By-products from skim milk: Casein: Types of commercial casein, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved, Industrial and food uses of casein.

Manufacture of sodium and calcium caseinates, their physico-chemical and functional properties and food applications. Manufacture of casein hydrolysate and its industrial application..

Co-precipitates: Types, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved, functional properties and food applications.

Whey processing: Fermented products from whey, Beverages from whey, Deproteinized and dematerialized whey, condensed whey, Dried whey, types and their specifications, manufacturing techniques.

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