«Sundaresan School of Animal Husbandry and Dairying SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES (Formerly Allahabad Agriculture ...»
Structure and function of: prokaryotic cells and their organelles: eucaryotic cells and their organelles.
Principles of nomenclature & taxonomy: Adansonian's classification of micro- organism. Classification according to Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology.
Physiology, growth and multiplication: definition of bacterial physiology and metabolism of bacteria, fungi and virus. Nutritional requirements of bacteria, fungi and virus. Bacterial growth curve, chemo stat, diauxy growth.
Physical and chemical factors affecting growth of microorganisms viz., Temperature, pH. Osmotic pressure,
nutrients, bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents; estimation of bacterial growth. Bacterial genetics:
structure of DNA. Difference between DNA & RNA.
Genetic recombination methods - transformation, transformation, conjugation, protoplast fusion, electroporation, bacterial mutations-spontaneous and induced mutagens.
Principle of immunology: innate and acquired immunity; differences between active and passive immunity;
antigen and antibody reactions neutralization, precipitation and agglutination.
Microbiology of soil: microflora of soil; carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles.
Microbiology of water: microflora of water as carrier of pathogens; enumeration of coliform.
Microbiology of air Microflora of air samples: control of aerial contamination.
1.General instructions for microbiological laboratory. Optical tools; microscope-simple and compound. Study of general microbiological equipments; autoclave, hot air oven, centrifuge, colorimeter, laminar air flow chamber, Seitz filter, membrane filter.
2. Simple staining - methylene blue; crystal violet; negative staining. Differential staining: gram's staining. Spore staining, capsular staining, acid fast staining.
3. Motility of microorganisms.
4. Size of microorganism by micrometry.
5. Microscopic examination of bacteria, yeasts, molds & protozoa.
6. Preparation of media: nutrient medium, simple & differential media.
7. Cultural characteristics of bacteria and fungi in broth and on agar media.
8. Effect of physical, chemical factors on bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, salt, sugar; bacteriostatic & bactericidal agents.
9. Enumeration of microorganisms in air. Enumeration of microorganisms in soil and rhizosphere and their morphological examination.
10.Enumeration of microorganisms in water: total viable count, coliforms (MPN), test for differentiation of E. coli and Ent. aerogenes.
11. Isolation techniques for microorganisms such as streaking, overlaying
1. Electrical machines: A.G. motors- principal parts function types, difference between generator and motor, maintenance of motor.
2. Refrigeration: Importance in dairy industry, natural refrigeration, artificial refrigeration by mechanical compression system or absorption system, calculation of quantity of ice or dry ice required for certain amount of cooling,Mechanical refrigeration cycle, refrigerants, bulk milk coolers –construction function and maintenance, cold stores, operation and maintenance of cold stores
3. Water supply :- Principles of water supply, water requirement, sources of water, pumps terminology, general, construction of pumps, types-positive pumps, non-positive pumps, calculation of requirements of H.P., sanitary and irrigation pumps, maintenance of total head discharge.
5. Storage tank: Types functions and constructional features, types and maintenance of clarifiers’ separators, homogenizers, heat exchangers, pasteurizers, milk sterilizers, can washers bottle washers ghee kettles, butter churns ice cream freezing equipments.
(a)Phase induction motor with star delta and their functions, demonstration of operation, calculation of discharge.
(b) Demonstration of operation of dairy plant machinery. Study of the general features of feed grinder and mixture- principal parts and their function (c)Acquaintance with soldering, gas, and arc welding equipment their functions and operations.
EXT – 301 DAIRY EXTENSION EDUCATION 2-0-2=3 Need, definition, philosophy, principles, approaches and objectives of extension education. Present status of extension programme. Teaching learning process, extension teaching methods, classification and selection of teaching methods. Nature and importance of communication. Key elements of communications. Models of communication, process, feedback and problems in communication.
Importance of audio-visual aids in extension education, Classification, planning and selection of A. V.
Aids, Photography as visual medium:
a) Introduction to photography b) Camera: types, formats, parts, and their functions.
c) Lenses: types, zoom, perspective control through lens.
d) Lighting: techniques in flash and artificial lighting.
e) Exposure: exposure techniques, exposure meters
f) Slide Preparation: composition, copying, developers, toners, mounting & labeling.
Identification of moral leaders, their characteristics, roles and functions in moral development, training of moral leaders. Definition of groups, natural types, principles of working with groups and their mobilization. Need, principles and steps of programme planning. Evaluation Procedure of extension programme. Diffusion of innovation and categories of farmers.
Practicals I. Acquiring skill in use of audio-visual aids: Overhead Projector, Slide Projector, Use of VCR and PA system.
2. Preparation and use of visual aids and printed material:
Poster and chart, Flash card and flannel Graph Circular letter, leaflet, pamphlet, folder
4. Conducting a method demonstration
5. Slide Making of drawing/written matter, making of negative from photographs.
6. Making of 35 mm slide- processing chemicals, etc. Toning and mounting.
7. Identification of moral problems of nearby village farmers through interview method
Market milk industry in India and abroad: distinctive features of tropical dairying from those temperature climates.
Collection and transportation of milk. Identification of milkshed areas and planning procurement.
Organization of milk collection routes.
Practices for collection of milk: Options for collection/preservation of milk at farm Cooling, natural inhibitory substances in milk. Lactoperoxidase system, effect of m Transportation methods and organization of raw milk transport.
Reception and preliminary testing of milk at plant.
Processing of market milk:
Practices for reception, chilling, clarification, storage of raw milk. Homogenization of milk: definition, pretreatment of milk for homogenization, homogenization, synchronization of homogenization with HTST plant.
Effect of homogenization on physico-chemical properties of milk.
Thermal processing of milk:
Principles of thermal processing, kinetics of microbial destruction, thermal death curve, Arrhen equation.
Terminology used in thermal processing-'D-value', 'Z-value', 'QIO-value', 'Fo-value’.
Process description and definitions: Thermization, pasteurization, sterilization, UHT -processing.
Thermization: significance and methods.
Pasteurization methods: LTLT/HTST, uperization, stassanization.
Manufacture of sterilized milk.
UHT -processing of milk: Relevance of UHT -processing.
Description of UHT -plants - direct, indirect, upstream and downstream homogenization, third generation UHT plants.
Aseptic packaging: types of packaging approaches for sterilization of packages, filling systems. Shelf-life behaviour of UHT milk.
Quality assurance and technical control in UHT processing, design features, training of personnel, plant hygiene, tests for UHT milk.
Nutritive value of heat processed fluid milks.
Plant operation efficiencies for market milk.
Product accounting, setting up of norms for operational losses for fat and SNF, monitoring of operational efficiencies, training of personnel, maintaining plant hygiene.
Distribution system for heat processed milk Practicals
1. Reception of milk at the plant.
2. Pre-treatment of raw milk: chilling, clarification, filtration.
3. Cream separation, standardization of milk.
4. Operation of LTLT, HTST pasteurizer, sterilizer and UHT plants.
5. CIP cleaning of storage tanks, cream separators, clarifiers, HTST plants
6. Preparation of special milks, vitaminized, homogenized milks, flavoured milk, toned, double toned, sterilized, recombined milks, lactose hydrolysed milk.
7. Homogenization efficiency of milk (USPH, curd tension).
8. Visit to market milk plant.
Constituents and gross composition of milk. Factors affecting composition of milk. Preservatives, neutralizers and adulterants in milk and their detection.
Nomenclature and classification of milk proteins. Casein: isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein. Whey proteins: preparation of total whey proteins: (β-lactalbumin, (β -lactoglobulin. Properties of β -lactalbulin and (β -lactoglobulin. / Immunoglobulins and other minor 14 milk proteins and non-proteins nitrogen constituents of milk. Hydrolysis and denaturation of milk proteins under different physical and chemical environments. Estimation of milk proteins using different physical and chemical methods. Elementary idea about genetic polymorphism of milk proteins.
Milk enzymes with special references to lipases, xanthine oxidase, phosphatases, proteases and lactoperoxidase.
Milk carbohydrates their status and importance. Physical and chemical properties of lactose. Sugar amine condensation, amadori re-arrangement, production of hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF). Processing related degradation of lactose.
Definition, general composition and classification of milk lipids, nomenclature and general structure of glycerides, factors affecting the fatty acid composition. Milk phospholipids and their role in milk products. Unsaponifiable matter and fat soluble vitamins.
Milk salts: minerals in milk (a) major minerals (b) trace elements. physical equilibria among the milk salts.
Soft and hard water, temporary and permanent hardness of water, softening of hard water.
Milk contact surfaces and metallic contamination.
Practicals Sampling techniques for chemical examination of milk.
Determination of pH and titratable acidity of milk.
Determination of fat in milk by different methods.
Determination of total solids and solids-not -fat in milk.
Determination of total milk proteins by Kjeldahl method.
Determination of casein. whey proteins and NPN in milk.
Estimation of alkaline phosphatase and lipase in milk.
Determination of lactose in milk.
Determination of ash in milk..
Determination of phosphorus and calcium in milk Determination of chloride in milk.
Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water.
Estimation of available chlorine from bleaching powder.
AHD- 307 DAIRY ANIMAL NUTRITION 3-0-2 =4 Nutrients- Definition, classification and role in Animal Nutrition, Feeds and fodders : classification and nutritive value, Evaluation of feeds, Feeding standards, Ration : Balanced, maintenance, production and ideal ration, principles of rationing, desirable characteristics of good ration, formulation of balanced ration for different categories of dairy animals. Supply of green fodders round the year, feeding practices for dairy animals – Soiling system, silage, hay and pasturing. Agro-Industrial by products, new trends in feeding farm animals. Improvement in quality of feeds.
INTRODUCTION: Definition of statistics and its use and limitation; frequency distribution and frequency curves; measure of central tendency; characteristics of ideal average arithmetic mean; median;
mode, merit and demerit of arithmetic mean; measure of dispersion; standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation; probability: definition and concept of probability; normal distribution and its properties; introduction to sampling; random sampling; the concept of standard error; test of significancetype of errors, null hypothesis, level of significance and degree of freedom, steps involved in testing of hypothesis; large sample test SND test for means, single sample and double samples; small sample test for means, students t-test for single sample, two samples and paired t-test. F-test, chi-square test in 2x2 contingency table, Yates correction for continuity ;correlation ; types of correlation and identification through scatter diagram, computation of correlation coefficient ‘r’ and its testing. Linear regression; of Y on X and X on Y. Inter-relation between ‘r’ and regression coefficient. Fitting of regression equation.
16 Experimental design; basic design complete randomized design (CRD), layout and analysis Latin square design (LSD), layout and design.
Practical: construction of frequency distribution tables and frequency curves; computation of arithmetic mean for un-grouped and grouped data computation of median for un-grouped and grouped data;
computation of mode for ungrouped and grouped data,computation of standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation for un-grouped and grouped data; and two samples student t-test for single sample; student-test for two samples; paired t-test F-test; chi –square test in2x2 contingency table, Yates correction for continuity; computation of correlation coefficient ‘r’ and its testing fitting of regression equation-y on x and x on y; analysis of CRD; RBD; and LSD.
Biotechnology Definition scope and historical development of biotechnology.
Genetic code restriction endonucleases, vectors cloning strategies in bacteria and animals, animal cell culture.